nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2011‒06‒25
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Migrant Women on the Labour Market By Suzanne Kok; Nicole Bosch; Anja Deelen; Rob Euwals
  2. International Migration, Imperfect Information and Brain Drain By Vianney Dequiedt; Yves Zenou
  3. Social Contacts and the Economic Performance of Immigrants: A Panel Study of Immigrants in Germany By Kanas, Agnieszka; Chiswick, Barry R.; van der Lippe, Tanja; van Tubergen, Frank
  4. Immigration, Jobs and Employment Protection: Evidence from Europe By Francesco D'Amuri; Giovanni Peri
  5. The effects of taxation on migration: Some evidence for the ASEAN and APEC economies By Edda Claus; Iris Claus; Michael Dörsam
  6. Welfare Magnets, Taxation and the Location Decisions of Migrants to the EU By Klaus Nowotny
  7. A politização das migrações internacionais : direitos humanos e soberania nacional By Fausto Brito

  1. By: Suzanne Kok; Nicole Bosch; Anja Deelen; Rob Euwals
    Abstract: <p>The behaviour of migrant women on the labour market is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the culture of the home and the host country. </p><p>Part of the literature investigates the role of home-country culture. This study extends the literature by including a measure for the influence of host-country culture as an additional determinant of the participation of migrant women. The empirical model explains participation from demographics and educational attainment, and uses home- and host-country female participation as proxies for culture. Evidence on the basis of the Dutch Labour Force Survey 1996 – 2007 suggests that both differences in home-country female participation and the trend in native female participation, as a measure for host-country culture, affect the participation of migrant women. The results suggest that host-country participation is at least as important as home-country participation.</p><p><em><em>Keywords: female labour force participation, immigration, cultural transmission</em></em></p>
    JEL: J16 J22 J61
    Date: 2011–06
  2. By: Vianney Dequiedt (Université d’Auvergne); Yves Zenou (Stockholm University, IFN, and CEPR)
    Abstract: We consider a model of international migration where skills of workers are imperfectly observed by firms in the host country and where information asymmetries are more severe for immigrants than for natives. There are two stages. In the first one, workers in the South decide whether to move and pay the migration costs. These costs are assumed to be sunk. In the second stage, firms offer wages to the immigrant and native workers who are in the country. Because of imperfect information, firms statistically discriminate high-skilled migrants by paying them at their expected productivity. The decision of whether to migrate or not depends on the proportion of high-skilled workers among the migrants. The migration game exhibits strategic complementarities, which, because of standard coordination problems, lead to multiple equilibria. We characterize them and examine how international migration affects the income of individuals in sending and receiving countries, and of migrants themselves. We also analyze under which conditions there is positive or negative self-selection of migrants.
    Keywords: asymmetric information, screening, self-selection of migrants, skill-biased migration, wage differentials
    JEL: D82 J61 F22 O12
    Date: 2011–06
  3. By: Kanas, Agnieszka (Utrecht University); Chiswick, Barry R. (George Washington University); van der Lippe, Tanja (Utrecht University); van Tubergen, Frank (Utrecht University)
    Abstract: Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we examined the impact of social contacts on immigrant occupational status and income. In addition to general social contacts, we also analyzed the effects of bonding (i.e., co-ethnic) and bridging (i.e., interethnic) ties on economic outcomes. Results show that general social contacts have a positive effect on the occupational status and, in particular, annual income of immigrants. We also find that bridging ties with Germans lead to higher occupational status, but not to increased income. These effects remain visible even when social contacts are measured (at least) one year prior to the economic outcomes, as well as when earlier investments in German human capital are considered. Finally, we show that co-ethnic concentration in the region of residence weakly affects economic returns to German language proficiency and schooling.
    Keywords: occupational status, social contacts, immigrants, income, panel data
    JEL: F22 J61 Z13
    Date: 2011–06
  4. By: Francesco D'Amuri; Giovanni Peri
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze the effect of immigrants on native jobs in fourteen Western European countries. We test whether the inflow of immigrants in the period 1996-2007 decreased employment rates and/or if it altered the occupational distribution of natives with similar education and age. We find no evidence of the first but significant evidence of the second: immigrants took "simple" (manual-routine) type of occupations and natives moved, in response, toward more "complex" (abstract-communication) jobs. The results are robust to the use of an IV strategy based on past settlement of different nationalities of immigrants across European countries. We also document the labor market flows through which such a positive reallocation took place: immigration stimulated job creation, and the complexity of jobs offered to new native hires was higher relative to the complexity of destructed native jobs. Finally, we find evidence that the occupation reallocation of natives was significantly larger in countries with more flexible labor laws. This tendency was particularly strong for less educated workers.
    JEL: J24 J61 J62
    Date: 2011–06
  5. By: Edda Claus; Iris Claus; Michael Dörsam
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of taxation on migration. It develops a stylized, two-country model to examine the impact of taxation on labor mobility. The theoretical prediction that taxation affects migration decisions is supported by some empirical evidence for the ASEAN and APEC economies. Average tax rates are found to have a larger impact on migration choices than marginal rates. Moreover, the results suggest that educated migrants are more responsive to tax- ation than migrants with no education. Average tax rates are most important for migrants with secondary education, while marginal rates have a greater influ- ence on the decisions of migrants with tertiary education than secondary educated migrants. The finding that taxation affects migration decisions, in particular of educated migrants, has important policy implications.
    JEL: F22 H24 H31
    Date: 2010–12
  6. By: Klaus Nowotny (WIFO)
    Abstract: Migrants are among the groups most vulnerable to economic fluctuations. As predicted by the "welfare magnet" hypothesis, migrants can therefore be expected to – ceteris paribus – prefer countries with more generous welfare provisions to insure themselves against labour market risks. This paper analyses the role of the welfare magnet hypothesis for migrants to the EU 15 at the regional level. The empirical analysis based on a random parameters logit model shows that the regional location decisions of migrants are mostly governed by income opportunities, labour market conditions, ethnic networks and a common language. There is no strong evidence for the welfare magnet hypothesis in the EU, but the empirical model shows that the income tax system has a large and consistent effect on locational choice.
    Keywords: welfare magnet hypothesis, migration, random parameters logit model
    Date: 2011–04–04
  7. By: Fausto Brito (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the reaction of developed countries to international migration through restrictive legislation. It is considered that the cause of this reaction is not only cyclical, derived from the contemporary crisis of capitalism, but also that it lies in the structural formation of the host countries. The foundation of policy analysis undertaken throughout is developed to understand the paradox established between the sovereignty of each country and the universalization of human rights, especially of immigrants.
    Keywords: international migration, human rights, national sovereignty.
    JEL: J61
    Date: 2011–06

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