nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2011‒06‒04
five papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Labour market integration and its effect on child labour By Gärtner, Manfred
  2. Migration, Transfers and Child Labor By Ralitza Dimova; Gil S. Epstein; Ira N. Gang
  3. The educational aspirations of children of immigrants in Italy By Alessandra Minello; Nicola Barban
  4. NEVERTHELESS ATTRACTING… Italy and Immigration in Times of Crisis By Ferruccio Pastore; Claudia Villosio
  5. Immigration and the Canadian Welfare State 2011 By Grubel, Herbert; Grady, Patrick

  1. By: Gärtner, Manfred
    Abstract: This note demonstrates that when developing countries remove barriers to migration and integrate their labour markets, children may be driven out of schools and into informal or paid employment in the comparatively rich countries. In industrialized countries, the same mechanism might force individuals or families to hold multiple jobs, into public welfare programs or into government-subsidized employment.
    Keywords: Labour market, migration, integration, child labour, subsistence, minimum wage.
    JEL: J13 O15
    Date: 2011–05
  2. By: Ralitza Dimova; Gil S. Epstein; Ira N. Gang (Osteuropa-Institut, Regensburg (Institut for East European Studies))
    Abstract: We examine agricultural child labor in the context of emigration, transfers, and the abil-ity to hire outside labor. We start by developing a theoretical background based on Basu and Van, (1998), Basu, (1999) and Epstein and Kahana (2008) and show how hir-ing labor from outside the household and transfers to the household might induce a re-duction in children’s working hours. Analysis using Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) data on the Kagera region in Tanzania lend support to the hypothesis that both emigration and remittances reduce child labor.
    Keywords: child labor, emigration, transfers, Tanzania
    JEL: D62 F22 I30 J13 J20 J24 O15
    Date: 2011–04
  3. By: Alessandra Minello; Nicola Barban
    Abstract: The general aim of this paper is to investigate the educational aspirations of the children of immigrants living in Italy and attending the last year of primary school (8th grade). We look at the educational aspirations both as a predictor of educational choice and as a measure of social integration. We consider both secondary school track and university aspirations as indicators of educational preferences in the short and long run. Data have been collected during the 2005-2006 school year and they come from the ITAGEN survey: the first Italian nation-wide extensive survey on children with at least one foreign-born parent. First, we analyze association between aspirations and structural characteristics (e.g. migration status and country of origin) and social aspects such as family socioeconomic status, and friendship ties. These aspects seem to be determinants in defining both short and long time aspirations, while long-term aspirations are not associated with migration status. Second, we investigate the relevance of context in delineating educational aspirations. To develop this second aspect we perform multilevel analysis that takes into account both individual and school level variables. Our hypothesis, confirmed both for short and long aspirations, is that attending a school where most of the Italian pupils have high educational aspirations may lead children of immigrants to enhance their own aspirations.
    Keywords: educational aspirations, immigrant integration, ITAGEN, friendship ties, scholastic context
    Date: 2011–05
  4. By: Ferruccio Pastore; Claudia Villosio
    Date: 2011
  5. By: Grubel, Herbert; Grady, Patrick
    Abstract: This publication provides an estimate of the fiscal burden created by recent immigration into Canada and proposes reforms to existing immigrant selection policies to eliminate the burden. It uses a 2006 Census database to estimate the average incomes and taxes paid on these by immigrants who arrived in Canada over the period from 1987 to 2004. It also estimates other taxes they paid and the value of government services they absorbed. The study concludes that in the fiscal year 2005/06 the immigrants on average received an excess of $6,051 in benefits over taxes paid. Depending on assumptions about the number of recent immigrants in Canada, the fiscal burden in that year is estimated to be between $23.6 billion and $16.3 billion. These estimates are not changed by the consideration of other alleged benefits brought by immigrants. To curtail this growing fiscal burden from immigration, the study proposes that temporary work visas be granted to applicants who have a valid offer for employment from employers, in occupations and at pay levels specified by the federal government and determined in cooperation with private-sector employers. Immediate dependents may accompany successful applicants. The temporary visas are renewable and lead to landed immigrant status if certain specified employment criteria are met.
    Keywords: Canadian immigration; fiscal impacts of immigration to Canada; Immigration policy
    JEL: H22 H40 J65 J61
    Date: 2011–05–17

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