nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2011‒04‒23
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. The Impact of Union Dissolution on Moving Distances and Destinations in the UK By Feijten, Peteke; van Ham, Maarten
  2. Discrimination in second hand consumer markets: evidence from a field experiment By M. Belén Cobacho; Mariano Bosch
  3. Rental housing discrimination and the persistence of ethnic enclaves By M. Angeles Carnero Fernández; Lídia Farré Olalla; Mariano Bosch
  4. Migration, Transfers and Child Labor By Dimova, Ralitza; Epstein, Gil S.; Gang, Ira N.
  5. Pre-Hire Factors and Workplace Ethnic Segregation By Strömgren, Magnus; Tammaru, Tiit; van Ham, Maarten; Marcinczak, Szymon; Stjernström, Olof; Lindgren, Urban
  6. The Effects of Active Labour Market Policies for Immigrants Receiving Social Assistance in Denmark By Heinesen, Eskil; Husted, Leif; Rosholm, Michael
  7. Remittances and the Prevalence of Working Poor By Jean-Louis Combes; Christian Ebeke; Mathilde Maurel; Thierry Yogo

  1. By: Feijten, Peteke (University of St. Andrews); van Ham, Maarten (University of St. Andrews)
    Abstract: The number of people who have ever experienced a divorce, or a split up of a non-marital union, is rising every year. It is well known that union dissolution has a disruptive effect on the housing careers of those involved, often leading to downward moves on the housing ladder. Much less is known about the geographies of residential mobility after union dissolution. There are reasons to expect that those who experienced a union dissolution are less likely to move over longer distances, which could negatively influence the spatial flexibility of the labour force. This study contributes to the existing literature by investigating the occurrences of moves, distances moved and the destinations of moves after union dissolution. The paper also contributes to the literature by not only investigating the effect of divorce, but also splitting up, and repartnering on mobility. Using longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) and logistic regression models we found that union dissolution has a significant effect on the occurrence of moves and moving distances.
    Keywords: union dissolution, splitting up, divorce, housing career, spatial mobility, longitudinal data, BHPS, United Kingdom
    JEL: J12 J61 R21 R23
    Date: 2011–04
  2. By: M. Belén Cobacho (Dpto. Métodos Cuantitativos e Informáticos); Mariano Bosch (Universidad de Alicante)
    Abstract: This paper studies discrimination against immigrants in the consumer market in Spain. We send emails of fictitious buyers to a popular Spanish second hand market webpage similar to ebay. Sellers are approached randomly by buyers with Spanish native or foreign sounding names to signal their ethnic origin. We find that those buyers with a foreign sounding name are contacted around 7.8 percentage points less than those with a Spanish sounding name. We then turn to explore how the price of the advertised good influences the degree of discrimination against foreign sounding names. We find that differential treatment across names occurs with more intensity for cheaper goods.
    Keywords: discrimination, second hand consumer market, field experiment.
    JEL: J15 R23 C93
    Date: 2011–03
  3. By: M. Angeles Carnero Fernández (Universidad de Alicante); Lídia Farré Olalla (Universidad de Alicante); Mariano Bosch (Universidad de Alicante)
    Abstract: We conduct a field experiment to show that discrimination in the rental market represents a significant obstacle for the geographical assimilation process by immigrants. We employ the Internet platform to identify vacant rental apartments in different areas of the two largest Spanish cities, Madrid and Barcelona. We send emails showing interest in the apartments and signal the applicants’ ethnicity by using native and foreign-sounding names. We find that, in line with previous studies, immigrants face a differential treatment when trying to rent an apartment. Our results also indicate that this negative treatment varies considerably with the concentration of immigrants in the area. In neighbourhoods with a low presence of immigrants the response rate is 30 percentage points lower for immigrants than for natives, while this differential disappears when the immigration share reaches 50%. We conclude that discriminatory practices in the rental housing market contribute to perpetuate the ethnic spatial segregation observed in large cities.
    Keywords: immigration, discrimination, spatial segregation.
    JEL: J15 J61
    Date: 2011–03
  4. By: Dimova, Ralitza (University of Manchester); Epstein, Gil S. (Bar-Ilan University); Gang, Ira N. (Rutgers University)
    Abstract: We examine agricultural child labor in the context of emigration, transfers, and the ability to hire outside labor. We start by developing a theoretical background based on Basu and Van, (1998), Basu, (1999) and Epstein and Kahana (2008) and show how hiring labor from outside the household and transfers to the household might induce a reduction in children’s working hours. Analysis using Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) data on the Kagera region in Tanzania lend support to the hypothesis that both emigration and remittances reduce child labor.
    Keywords: child labor, emigration, transfers, Tanzania
    JEL: D62 F22 I30 J13 J20 J24 O15
    Date: 2011–04
  5. By: Strömgren, Magnus (Umeå University); Tammaru, Tiit (University of Tartu); van Ham, Maarten (University of St. Andrews); Marcinczak, Szymon (Umeå University); Stjernström, Olof (Umeå University); Lindgren, Urban (Umeå University)
    Abstract: In addition to neighbourhoods of residence, family and places of work play important roles in producing and reproducing ethnic segregation. Therefore, recent research on ethnic segregation and contact is increasingly turning its attention from residential areas towards other important domains of daily interethnic contact. The key innovation of this paper is to clarify the role of immigrants' pre-hire exposure to natives in the residence, workplace and family domains in immigrant exposure to natives in their current workplace. The study is based on Swedish population register data. The results show that at the macro level, workplace neighbourhood segregation is lower than residential neighbourhood segregation. Our micro-level analysis further shows that high levels of residential exposure of immigrants to natives help to reduce ethnic segregation at the level of workplace establishments as well.
    Keywords: neighbourhood effects, residential segregation, workplace segregation, intermarriage, longitudinal analysis, Sweden
    JEL: J15 J61 R23
    Date: 2011–04
  6. By: Heinesen, Eskil (AKF, Danish Institute of Governmental Research); Husted, Leif (AKF, Danish Institute of Governmental Research); Rosholm, Michael (Aarhus School of Business)
    Abstract: We estimate the effect of active labour market programmes on the exit rate to regular employment for non-western immigrants in Denmark who receive social assistance. We use the timing-of-events duration model and rich administrative data. We find large positive post-programme effects, and, surprisingly, even most in-programme effects are positive. The effects are largest for subsidized employment programmes, but effects are also large and significant for direct employment programmes and other programmes. The effects are larger if programmes begin after six months of unemployment. Implications of our estimates are illustrated by calculating effects on the duration to regular employment over a five-year period.
    Keywords: programme evaluation, duration analysis, timing-of-events model
    JEL: J64 J24 J68 J61 C41
    Date: 2011–04
  7. By: Jean-Louis Combes (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Christian Ebeke (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Mathilde Maurel (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Thierry Yogo (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the relationships between remittances and the share of individuals working for less than 2$ US per day. It is based on an original panel dataset containing information related to remittances in about 80 developing countries and to the number of workers being paid less than 2 dollars per day as well. Even after factoring in the endogeneity of remittance inflows the results suggest that remittances lead to a decrease in the prevalence of working poor in receiving economies. This effect is stronger in a context of high macroeconomic volatility but is mitigated by the unpredictability of remittances: remittances are more effective to decreasing the share of working poor when they are easily predictable. Moreover, domestic finance and remittances appear as substitutes: remittances are less efficient in reducing the prevalence of working poor whenever finance is available.
    Keywords: Working poor;Remittances;shocks;Financial Development
    Date: 2011–04–11

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