nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2011‒04‒09
eight papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. How Far Do Children Move?: Spatial Distances After Leaving the Parental Home By Thomas Leopold; Ferdinand Geißler; Sebastian Pink
  2. Ethnic Diversity and Preferences for Redistribution By Matz Dahlberg; Karin Edmark; Heléne Lundqvist
  3. Competition for the International Pool of Talent: Education Policy and Student Mobility By Alexander Haupt; Tim Krieger; Thomas Lange
  4. The Selection of Migrants and Returnees: Evidence from Romania and Implications By J. William Ambrosini; Karin Mayr; Giovanni Peri; Dragos Radu
  5. The Value of Diplomacy: Bilateral Relations and Immigrant Well-Being By Leonardo Becchetti; Andrew E. Clark; Elena Giachin Ricca
  6. Caste, local networks and lucrative jobs: Evidence from rural Nepal By Hatlebakk, Magnus; Iversen, Vegard; Torsvik, Gaute
  7. Known Knowns and Known Unknowns of Immigrant Self-employment. Selected issues By Joanna Nestorowicz
  8. Luxemburg's corporatist Scandinavian welfare system and incorporation of migrants By HARTMANN HIRSCH Claudia; AMETEPE Kossi

  1. By: Thomas Leopold; Ferdinand Geißler; Sebastian Pink
    Abstract: Little is known about how far young adults move when they leave their parental home initially. We addressed this question using data from ten waves (2000 ¿ 2009) of the German Socioeconomic Panel Study on spatial distances calculated by the geo-coordinates of residential moves (N = 1,425). Linear regression models predicted young adults· moving distance by factors at the individual, family, household, and community level. Overall, spatial distances of initial moveouts were strikingly small with a median value of only 9.5 kilometers. Those who were welleducated, female, single, childless, had highly educated fathers and high parental household incomes moved across greater distances. The effect of young adults· education was moderated by the local community·s degree of urbanization, supporting the brain drain assertion. In line with developmental models of migration, our results further show that young adults stayed closer if the parental household was still located at their place of childhood. We found two interactions with gender: At the family level, daughters stayed closer when leaving a single-parent household. At the community level, women from Eastern Germany moved farther, suggesting that the surplus of men in the Eastern periphery is at least to some extent an outcome of initial migration decisions.
    Date: 2011
  2. By: Matz Dahlberg (Uppsala University; IFAU; CESifo; UCFS; UCLS; IEB); Karin Edmark (IFN; IFAU; UCFS; UCLS); Heléne Lundqvist (Uppsala University; UCFS; UCLS)
    Abstract: In recent decades, the immigration of workers and refugees to Europe has increased substantially, and the composition of the population in many countries has consequently become much more heterogeneous in terms of ethnic background. If people exhibit in-group bias in the sense of being more altruistic to one's own kind, such increased heterogeneity will lead to reduced support for redistribution among natives. This paper exploits a nationwide program placing refugees in municipalities throughout Sweden during the period 1985{94 to isolate exogenous variation in immigrant shares. We match data on refugee placement to panel survey data on inhabitants of the receiving municipalities to estimate the causal effects of increased immigrant shares on preferences for redistribution. The results show that a larger immigrant population leads to less support for redistribution in the form of preferred social benet levels. This reduction in support is especially pronounced for respondents with high income and wealth. We also establish that OLS estimators that do not properly deal with endogeneity problems|as in earlier studies|are likely to yield positively biased (i.e., less negative) effects of ethnic heterogeneity on preferences for redistribution.
    Keywords: Income redistribution, ethnic heterogeneity, immigration
    JEL: D31 D64 I3 Z13
    Date: 2011
  3. By: Alexander Haupt (University of Plymouth); Tim Krieger (University of Paderborn); Thomas Lange (University of Konstanz)
    Abstract: This paper presents a model of two countries competing for a pool of students from the rest of the world (ROW). In equilibrium, one country offers high educational quality for high tuition fees, while the other country provides a low quality and charges low fees. The quality in the high quality country, the tuition fees, and the quality and tuition fee differential between the countries increase with the income prospects in ROW and the number of international students. Higher stay rates of foreign students lead to more ambiguous results. In particular, an increase in educational quality can be accompanied by a decline in tuition fees. Furthermore, international competition for students can give rise to a brain gain in ROW.
    Keywords: Higher education; student mobility; vertical quality dierentiation; return migration; brain gain
    JEL: H87 F22 I28
    Date: 2010–07
  4. By: J. William Ambrosini; Karin Mayr; Giovanni Peri; Dragos Radu
    Abstract: This paper uses census and survey data to identify the wage earning ability and the selectivity of recent Romanian migrants and returnees. We construct measures of selection across skill groups and estimate the average and the skills-specific premium for migration and return for three typical destinations of Romanian migrants after 1990. We find evidence for a sorting of migrants consistent with skill compensation in destination countries. The premium to return migration increases with migrants' skills and drives the positive selection of returnees. Based on the rationality of these migration decisions, a model of education, migration and return predicts positive long-run effects of increased migration for average skills and wages in Romania.
    JEL: F22 J61 O15
    Date: 2011–03
  5. By: Leonardo Becchetti (University of Rome "Tor Vergata"); Andrew E. Clark (Paris School of Economics and IZA); Elena Giachin Ricca (University of Rome "Tor Vergata")
    Abstract: This paper attempts to establish the value of good relationships between countries by considering their effect on a group of individuals who are arguably intimately affected by them: immigrants. We appeal to an index of conflict/cooperation which is calculated as an annual weighted sum of news items between two countries. This index is matched to a sample of immigrants to Germany in the SOEP data. The index of bilateral relations thus exhibits both time-series and cross-section variation. Good relations are positively and significantly correlated with immigrant life satisfaction, especially when we downplay low-value news events. This significant effect is much stronger for immigrants who have been in Germany longer, and who expect to stay there forever. This is consistent with good relations directly affecting the quality of immigrants’ lives in the host country, but is not consistent with assimilation. There is thus a significant value to diplomacy: good relationships between home and host countries generate significant well-being externalities for those who live abroad.
    Keywords: Migration, bilateral relations, life satisfaction, assimilation, diplomacy
    JEL: F5 F22 I31
    Date: 2011–03–29
  6. By: Hatlebakk, Magnus (CMI (Chr. Michelsen Istitute)); Iversen, Vegard (Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration), PhD (Cambridge).); Torsvik, Gaute (University of Bergen)
    Abstract: Abstract: We study how local connections to persons in influential positions affect access to migrant jobs and government employment. In rural Nepal, it would not be surprising if social status strongly influenced the access to attractive labor market opportunities. This is not the case. Although much of the variation in migration can be attributed to wealth, education and social identity, household networks have a separate impact on external employment. Wellconnected households are more likely to get government jobs and appear to have favorable access to the manpower agencies and informal loans required to finance migration to the Persian Gulf or Malaysia.
    Keywords: Geographic labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers; Model Construction and Estimation; Regional Migration; Regional Markets; Population; Neighborhood Characteristics
    JEL: C51 J61 R23
    Date: 2011–01–30
  7. By: Joanna Nestorowicz (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw; Centre of Migration Research, University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: The paper presents a review of selected definitional issues, theoretical concepts and most recent empirical evidence related to the phenomenon of immigrant self-employment. Based on the appraisal of gathered material it also points to possible areas of development of future research in the field.
    Keywords: migration, self-employment, ethnic entrepreneurship, middleman minority, ethnic enclave, literature review, state of the art
    JEL: B2 F22 J6
    Date: 2011
    Abstract: Luxembourg is the EU and OECD member state (MS) with a permanently increasing immigra-tion and the highest share of immigrants and cross border commuters within the labour force and more so within the competitive sector. Luxembourg has a typical Bismarckian corporatist welfare system, which has developed a gener-ous and broad welfare regime over the last 100 years with a further important push during the last two decades. Since then, benefits offered muted steadily to middle class standards and providers were merged to universalistic national bodies, leaving behind the different former corporatist providers. Due to a higher dependency on welfare benefits due to the economic downturn, nearly all MS modified from the 1970s onwards their original systems, mostly in the sense of a liberalization with cutbacks in comparison to the former more generous provisions. There has been a shift in responsibility from the state to the individual citizen via different means such as a non-increase of benefits, restricting eligibility (re-commodification), restructuring schemes in a radical way (recalibration) and cost containment measures (Pierson, 2001). Luxembourg however expanded and improved its system. What is the link between immigration and the outstanding evolution of the welfare system? The steady increase of young foreign contributors (immigrants and crossers) provided Luxem-bourg with the means to develop from a corporatist model to a Scandinavian with highest provi-sions, an emerging service sector and no significant retrenchment policy. Immigrants contribute, on average, more to the different welfare insurances than they use them, given their on average younger age, given a predominantly economic immigration and given higher employment rates than those of nationals.
    Keywords: Migrants' incorporation; corporatist; universalistic welfare regime; Luxembourg; migrants' contribution
    JEL: I38
    Date: 2011–03

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