nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2011‒03‒12
eight papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. The methodological challenge of monitoring living conditions. Insights from a tracking experience in Madagascar. By Julia Vaillant
  2. Conflict-induced Migration of Composers: An Individual-level Study By Karol Jan Borowiecki
  3. Are Composers Different? Historical Evidence on Conflict-induced Migration (1816-1997) By Karol Jan Borowiecki
  4. Free vs. Restricted Immigration: Bilateral Country Study By Razin, Assaf; Wahba, Jackline
  5. Seeking Success in Canada and the United States: The Determinants of Labour Market Outcomes Among the Children of Immigrants By Picot, Garnett; Hou, Feng
  6. Age at Migration, Language and Fertility Patterns among Migrants to Canada By Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana
  7. The immigrant/native wealth gap in Germany, Italy and Luxembourg By Thomas Y. Mathä; Alessandro Porpiglia; Eva Sierminska
  8. Does higher education help immigrants find a job? : A survival analysis By Brück-Klingberg, Andrea; Burkert, Carola; Garloff, Alfred; Seibert, Holger; Wapler, Rüdiger

  1. By: Julia Vaillant (Université Paris Dauphine, LEDa UMR 225 DIAL, IRD)
    Abstract: (english) Most longitudinal surveys recontact households only if they are still living in the same dwelling, producing very high attrition rates, especially in developing countries where rural-urban migration is prevalent. In this paper, we discuss the implications of the various follow-up rules used in longitudinal surveys in the light of an original tracking survey from Madagascar. This survey attempted in 2005 to search and interview all individuals who were living in the village of Bepako in 1995, the baseline year of a yearly survey, the Rural Observatories. The tracking survey yielded an individual recontact rate of 78.8%, more than halving attrition compared to a standard dwelling-based follow-up rule. The tracking reveals a very high rate of out-migration (38.8%) and household break-ups, as three quarters of recontacted households had divided between 1995 and 2005. The average income growth of the sample over the period increases by 28 percentage points when follow-up is extended to those who moved out of their household or village, suggesting that dwelling-based panels give a partial view of the welfare dynamics of the baseline sample. A higher baseline income per capita is associated with a higher probability of staying in Bepako and of being found in the tracking if one moved out. The hardest people to find are the poorest and most isolated. Special attention should be paid to collecting data that enable the identification and follow-up of individuals without which attrition is likely to remain a source of bias even after a tracking procedure is carried out. _________________________________ (français) La plupart des enquêtes en panel ne recontactent les ménages enquêtés que s'ils vivent toujours dans le même logement, ce qui créé des taux d'attrition très élevés, en particulier dans les pays en développement où la migration vers les villes est importante. Dans cet article, nous discutons les implications des différentes règles de suivi utilisées dans les enquêtes longitudinales à la lumière d'une enquête tracking originale réalisées à Madagascar. Cet enquête a tenté, en 2005, de chercher et enquêter tous les individus originaires de Bepako, où une enquête annuelle est réalisée depuis 1995 (Observatoires Ruraux). Ce dispositif a permis de recontacter 78.8% des individus, réduisant ainsi de plus de moitié l'attrition par rapport à un suivi des individus basé sur le logement. Le tracking révèle un taux de migration très élevé (38.8%) et d'importantes recompositions et divisions de ménages, puisque les trois quarts des ménages recontactés s'étaient divisés entre 1995 et 2005. La croissance du revenu moyenne dans l'échantillon sur la période augmente de 28 points de pourcentage lorsque le suivi est étendu à ceux ayant changé de ménage ou de lieu de résidence, suggérant que les panels basés sur le lieu de résidence génèrent une vue partielle de la dynamique des revenus de l'échantillon initial. Un revenu par tête initial plus élevé est associé à une probabilité plus forte de rester à Bepako ou d'être retrouvé lors du tracking. Les personnes les plus difficiles à retrouver sont les plus pauvres et isolées. Une attention particulière doit être portée à la collecte d'information permettant d'identifier et de réenquêter les individus, sans laquelle il est probable que l'attrition restera une source de biais, même après avoir réalisé une enquête tracking.
    Keywords: Panel data, tracking surveys, attrition, mobility.
    JEL: C81 I32 O12 O15
    Date: 2010–12
  2. By: Karol Jan Borowiecki (Department of Economics, Trinity College Dublin)
    Abstract: In this article we explore to what extent the incidence of war affects the probability to emigrate of 164 prominent classical composers born after 1800. This study provides first insights on the decision making process of the forced migrant, the associated dynamics of conflict-induced migration and the determinants of choice of a destination country. We find that the incidence of inter-state wars increases composers’ probability to emigrate by around seven percent and the incidence of intra-state wars by roughly nineteen percent. The results imply that conflict impacts the migration intensity with a lag of approximately one year. We also find that the choice of a destination country is inefficient in times of wars.
    Keywords: migration, refugee, conflict, war, geographic concentration, composer
    JEL: D74 F51 J61 Z10
    Date: 2011–03
  3. By: Karol Jan Borowiecki (Department of Economics, Trinity College Dublin)
    Abstract: In this paper we explore whether, and to what extent, the incidence of war affects the migration intensity of 164 prominent classical composers born after 1800. We model the aggregate stock of composers in a country and find that periods of war correspond negatively with the number of artists. We also find that conflict-induced migration intensity is considerably higher for composers than for the overall population and demonstrate that the share of composers in the overall population drops due to the incidence of war. We further find that the observed outmigration substantially diminishes the country’s creative potential in the long-run.
    Keywords: migration, refugee, conflict, war, geographic concentration, composer
    JEL: D74 F51 J61 Z10
    Date: 2011–03
  4. By: Razin, Assaf (Cornell University); Wahba, Jackline (University of Southampton)
    Abstract: This paper tests the differential effects of the generosity of the welfare state under free migration and under policy-controlled migration, distinguishing between source developing and developed countries. We utilize free-movement within the EU to examine the free migration regime and compare that to immigration into the EU from two other groups, developed and developing source countries, to capture immigration-restricted regimes. We standardize cross-country education quality differences by using the Hanushek-Woessmann (2009) cognitive skills measure. We find strong support for the "magnet hypothesis" under the free-migration regime, and the "fiscal burden hypothesis" under the immigration-restricted regime even after controlling for differences in returns to skills in source and host countries.
    Keywords: migration, welfare state, EU
    JEL: J61 J48
    Date: 2011–03
  5. By: Picot, Garnett; Hou, Feng
    Abstract: This paper reviews recent research on the determinants of the labour market outcomes of the children of immigrants in Canada and in the U.S. New research on outcomes in Canada is also presented. In the aggregate, and with no controls, the labour market outcomes of the second generation-the children of immigrants-are equal to, or better than, those of the third-and-higher generations-the children of domestic-born parents. However, the story is somewhat different after one has accounted for the superior educational levels and the residential locations of the second generation. In the U.S, the second generation's advantage in labour market outcomes disappears; in Canada, among second-generation members of a visible-minority group, the advantage turns marginally negative. Ethnic group/source region differences in outcomes loom large in both countries. The important determinants of the earnings gap between the second generation and the third-and-higher generations include educational attainment, which accounts for about half of the wage gap, residential location, ethnic background, the degree of "ethnic capital," and the educational and earnings mobility between immigrants and their children.
    Keywords: Education, training and learning, Children and youth, Ethnic diversity and immigration, Educational attainment, Immigrant children and youth, Ethnic groups and generations in Canada, Labour market and income
    Date: 2011–03–03
  6. By: Adsera, Alicia (Princeton University); Ferrer, Ana (University of Calgary)
    Abstract: This paper explores the fertility decisions of Canadian immigrants using the 20 percent sample of the Canadian Census of Population for the years 1991 through 2006. We focus on those migrating as children, to assess their process of assimilation in terms of fertility. Our analysis does not show any sharp discontinuity by age at migration as sometimes observed on education or labor market outcomes are not present in fertility outcomes. Rather, there is an inverted U shape relationship between age of migration and immigrant fertility, with those migrating in their late teens having the highest fertility rates when compared to natives. This pattern occurs for all countries of origin, although at different paces. Further, language acquisition does not seem to be a key mechanism though which age at immigration affects fertility – fertility behaviour of immigrants with an official mother tongue also differs from that of natives. School integration, however, could be a channel through which age at immigration affects fertility. College graduates arriving to Canada anytime before adulthood behave as their native peers.
    Keywords: fertility, migration, age at migration, language
    JEL: J13 J15 J61
    Date: 2011–03
  7. By: Thomas Y. Mathä (Economics and Research Department, Banque centrale du Luxembourg.); Alessandro Porpiglia (Economics and Research Department, Banque centrale du Luxembourg.); Eva Sierminska (CEPS/INSTEAD Research Institute & DIW, Berlin, Germany.)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the existence of an immigrant/native wealth gap by using household survey data for Luxembourg, Germany and Italy. The results show that, in all three countries, a sizeable wealth gap exists between natives and immigrants. Towards the upper tail of the wealth distribution the gap narrows to a small extent. This gap persists even after controlling for demographic characteristics, country of origin, cohort and age at migration although cross-country differences exist in the immigration penalty. JEL Classification: D31, F22.
    Keywords: household, survey data, wealth gap, immigrants, distribution.
    Date: 2011–02
  8. By: Brück-Klingberg, Andrea (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Burkert, Carola (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Garloff, Alfred (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Seibert, Holger (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Wapler, Rüdiger (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "We analyse the role that education signals play in the transition rates from unemployment to finding a job. We compare the results for Ethnic Germans with those for foreigners from the same origin countries and Native Germans. In the first case, the two have the same labourmarket access but different migration backgrounds. In the second case, the migration background is similar, but labourmarket access is not. We find that Ethnic Germans fare better than foreigners because more of them are able to accredit their foreign degrees and hence can apply for a job as a medium- or high-skilled individual which both have faster transition rates than the low-skilled. However, both foreigners and Ethnic Germans with accredited degrees have similar transition rates. Finally, if education signals are acquired in Germany, the differences between all three groups vanish more or less completely." (author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Aussiedler, berufliche Reintegration, Migranten, Deutscher, Arbeitsmarktchancen, Aussiedlerpolitik, Bildungsabschluss - Anerkennung, Integrierte Erwerbsbiografien
    JEL: J24 J61 J64
    Date: 2011–02–28

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