nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2011‒02‒19
six papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Educational Attainment and Education-job Mismatch of Cross-border Commuters in the EU By Peter Huber
  2. Spatial versus Social Mismatch: The Strength of Weak Ties By Zenou, Yves
  3. Competition in the quality of higher education: the impact of students' mobility By Gabrielle Demange; Robert Fenge
  4. Brain Drain from Turkey: Return Intentions of Skilled Migrants By Nil Demet Güngör; Aysit Tansel
  5. Border guards as an alien police: usages of the Schengen Agreement in France By Sara Casella Colombeau
  6. Impact of migration on economic and social development : a review of evidence and emerging issues By Ratha, Dilip; Mohapatra, Sanket; Scheja, Elina

  1. By: Peter Huber (WIFO)
    Abstract: I describe the extent and structure of cross-border commuting in the EU 27 to show that this is important only in a small number of border regions with strong linguistic, historic or institutional ties. Cross-border commuters are mostly medium skilled, male manufacturing workers, who have higher over- but lower under-education rates than non-commuters, internal commuters and established migrants. These findings can mostly be attributed to cross-border commuters from the 12 new EU member countries. Cross-border commuters from the EU 15 have higher under- and lower over-education rates than non-commuters.
    Keywords: Commuting, Selection, Education-job Mismatch
    Date: 2011–02–08
  2. By: Zenou, Yves (Stockholm University and Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden, and GAINS)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to provide a new mechanism based on social interactions explaining why distance to jobs can have a negative impact on workers’ labor-market outcomes, especially ethnic minorities. Building on Granovetter’s idea that weak ties are superior to strong ties for providing support in getting a job, we develop a model in which workers who live far away from jobs tend to have less connections to weak ties. Because of the lack of good public transportation in the US, it is costly (both in terms of time and money) to commute to business centers to meet other types of people who can provide other source of information about jobs. If distant minority workers mainly rely on their strong ties, who are more likely to be unemployed, there is then little chance of escaping unemployment. It is therefore the separation in both the social and physical space that prevents ethnic minorities finding a job.
    Keywords: Weak ties; labor market; social networks; land rent
    JEL: A14 J15 R14 Z13
    Date: 2011–02–04
  3. By: Gabrielle Demange (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris - ENS Paris - INRA, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris); Robert Fenge (University of Rostock - University of Rostock, CESifo - CESifo)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes in a two-country model the impact of students' mobility on the country-specific level of higher educational quality. Individuals decide whether and where to study based on their individual ability and the implemented quality of education. We show that the mobility of students affects educational quality in countries and welfare in a very different way depending on the degree of return migration. With a low return probability, countries choose suboptimally differentiated levels of educational quality, or even no differentiation at all.
    Keywords: higher education ; migration ; tuition fees ; education quality ; vertical differentiation
    Date: 2010–09
  4. By: Nil Demet Güngör (Atýlým University); Aysit Tansel (Middle East Technical University and Economic Research Forum (ERF) Cairo, Egypt)
    Abstract: The study estimates an empirical model of return intentions using a dataset compiled from an internet survey of Turkish professionals residing abroad. In the migration literature, wage differentials are often cited as an important factor explaining skilled migration. The findings of our study suggest, however, that non-pecuniary factors, such as the importance of family and social considerations, are also influential in the return or non-return decision of the highly educated. In addition, economic instability in Turkey, prior intentions to stay abroad and work experience in Turkey also increase non-return. Female respondents also appear less likely to return indicating a more selective migration process for females.
    Keywords: Skilled migration, Brain drain, Return intentions, Turkey
    JEL: F20 F22
    Date: 2011–02
  5. By: Sara Casella Colombeau
    Abstract: The creation of a common European space following the integration of the Schengen Agreement into the acquis communautaires through the Amsterdam Treaty in 1997, and the subsequent treaties and summits, lead Member States to consider border control as a common issue. One could have thought that the lifting of the internal borders within the Schengen space would have threatened the border guard corps at the national level. This is not the case. I will show that, thanks to a change in the model of French border guards, their power and influence have in fact risen in the second part of the 1990’s. In response to the fear of a drastic cut in the workforce, French border guards mobilize to define a new model of border guard: the alien police model, which aimed at fighting against illegal immigration.
    Keywords: administrative adaptation; Europeanization; France; free movement; immigration policy; national parliaments; policy analysis; public administration; Schengen
    Date: 2010–11–03
  6. By: Ratha, Dilip; Mohapatra, Sanket; Scheja, Elina
    Abstract: This paper provides a review of the literature on the development impact of migration and remittances on origin countries and on destination countries in the South. International migration is an ever-growing phenomenon that has important development implications for both sending and receiving countries. For a sending country, migration and the resulting remittances lead to increased incomes and poverty reduction, and improved health and educational outcomes, and promote economic development. Yet these gains might come at substantial social costs to the migrants and their families. Since many developing countries are also large recipients of international migrants, they face challenges of integration of immigrants, job competition between migrant and native workers, and fiscal costs associated with provision of social services to the migrants. This paper also summarizes incipient discussions on the impacts of migration on climate change, democratic values, demographics, national identity, and security. In conclusion, the paper highlights a few policy recommendations calling for better integration of migration in development policies in the South and the North, improving data collection on migration and remittance flows, leveraging remittances for improving access to finance of recipient households and countries, improving recruitment mechanisms, and facilitating international labor mobility through safe and legal channels.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Access to Finance,Voluntary and Involuntary Resettlement,Banks&Banking Reform
    Date: 2011–02–01

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