nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2011‒01‒30
25 papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. University choice, peer group and distance By B. Cesi; Dimitri Paolini
  2. Nationality Law and European Citizenship: The Role of Dual Nationality By Costanza Margiotta and Olivier Vonk
  3. Dual citizenship for transborder minorities? How to respond to the Hungarian-Slovak tit-for-tat By Rainer Bauböck
  4. Negative Equity Does Not Reduce Homeowners' Mobility By Sam Schulhofer-Wohl
  5. Improving the Flexibility of the Dutch Housing Market to Enhance Labour Mobility By Jens Høj
  6. Immigrants, schooling and background. Cross-country evidence from PISA 2006 By Marina Murat; Davide Ferrari; Patrizio Frederic; Giulia Pirani
  7. Immigration Policy and Less-Skilled Workers in the United States: Reflections on Future Directions for Reform By Holzer, Harry J.
  8. High-Skilled Immigration Policy in Europe By Kahanec, Martin; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
  9. Labour Market Outcomes and Skill Acquisition in the Host Country: North African Migrants Returning Home from the European Union By Mahuteau, Stéphane; Tani, Massimiliano
  10. Ethnic Identity and Labor-Market Outcomes of Immigrants in Europe By Bisin, Alberto; Patacchini, Eleonora Patacchini; Verdier, Thierry Verdier; Zenou, Yves Zenou5
  11. Ethnic Diversity and Preferences for Redistribution By Dahlberg, Matz; Edmark, Karin; Lundqvist, Heléne
  12. Immigration, integration and terrorism: is there a clash of cultures? By Justina AV Fischer
  13. Cultural Transmission, Discrimination and Peer Effects By Sáez-Martí, Maria; Zenou, Yves
  14. Is the Minimum Wage a Pull Factor for Immigrants? By Giulietti, Corrado
  15. Dwindling U.S. Internal Migration: Evidence of Spatial Equilibrium? By Mark D., Partridge; Dan S. , Rickman; M. Rose , Olfert; Kamar, Ali
  16. Are Immigrants Paid Less for Education? By Lubomira Anastassova
  17. Migration and social insurance By Helmuth Cremer; Catarina Goulão
  18. A Comparison of Earnings and Occupational Attainment of Refugees and Asylum Seekers and Economic Immigrants in the UK By Rukhsana Kausar; Stephen Drinkwater
  19. Unions and Upward Mobility for Asian American and Pacific Islander Workers By John Schmitt; Hye Jin Rho; Nicole Woo
  20. Migration, urban population growth and regional disparity in China By Mary-Françoise Renard; Zelai Xu; Nong Zhu
  21. The Impact of Ireland's Recession on the Labour Market Outcomes of its Immigrants By Barrett, Alan; Kelly, Elish
  22. Remittances and Gender: Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Evidence By Elke Holst; Andrea Schäfer; Mechthild Schrooten
  23. Remittances from Sweden. an Exploration of Swedish Survey Data By Pelling, Lisa; Hedberg, Charlotta; Malmberg, Bo
  24. La fuite des cerveaux incite-t-elle la scolarisation ? By Matthieu Boussichas
  25. Darbaspēka migrācijas ietekme uz darba tirgu Latvijā By Skribans, Valerijs

  1. By: B. Cesi; Dimitri Paolini
    Abstract: We analyze how authorizing a new university affects welfare when the students’ education depends on the peer group effect. Students are horizontally differentiated according to their ability and the distance from the university. Comparing a monopolistic university with a two-universities model we find that allowing a “new” university is welfare improving when the monopolistic university is only attended by able students with less mobility constraints. This occurs when mobility costs are sufficiently high. When mobility costs are low, a negative externality arises and welfare decreases. The negative externality comes through the peer group effect - high ability students that would have gone to the monopolistic university go to the university with the lower average ability. These students end up in a university with students whose ability was not high enough to go to the monopolist. On the other hand, students remaining in the good university benefit from a lower average ability. Thus, a new university is welfare improving only for those with low ability that in the monopolistic scenario would remain unskilled. When, instead, the mobility cost is high, the monopolist leaves out a significative mass of individuals. In this case, no negative externality arises because no student swaps university therefore a "new" university is welfare improving. However, this welfare improvement makes the opportunities for a higher education less equal (according to Romer, 1998) because an "external circumstance" like mobility cost, rather than own ability, becomes the main determinant of the students’ human capital.
    Keywords: peer group quality; mobility costs; universities
    JEL: I21 I23
    Date: 2011
  2. By: Costanza Margiotta and Olivier Vonk
    Abstract: The relationship between the nationality laws of the European Union Member States and European citizenship has long been the subject of academic discussion. The objective of the present paper is to investigate particularly the impact of the dual nationality regimes – for our purposes to be understood as the possession of a Member State and a non-Member State nationality – on access to European citizenship. Based on an analysis of dual nationality in three different historical-constitutional contexts (post-colonialism, post-emigration and post-communism), we argue that the use of dual nationality – in combination with a preferential nationality regime for certain groups residing outside the EU –, results in discrimination against migrants on the basis of their origin. The different dual nationality policies also affect the EU at large as Member State nationals enjoy – as European citizens – the right of free movement and residence in the Union’s territory. At the same time, however, it can be seriously queried whether these ‘external EU citizens’ can demonstrate a real link with the Member States granting their nationality. Finally, the examination of the case law of the European Court of Justice shows that tensions have already arisen between different Member State nationality laws; it is expected that these tensions will arise even more frequently in the future precisely as a result of the privileged route towards the acquisition of a second ‘European’ nationality. As the latter development is negatively perceived by many Member States, the EU may decide to undertake action in the area of nationality. This, in turn, could give rise to the legal autonomy of Union citizenship.
    Keywords: European citizenship
    Date: 2010–10–15
  3. By: Rainer Bauböck
    Abstract: On 26 May Hungary and Slovakia both amended their citizenship laws. Hungary removed a residence requirement for naturalisation, opening thereby the door to naturalisation of ethnic Hungarian minorities in neighbouring states, while Slovakia decided that any Slovak citizen voluntarily acquiring the citizenship of a foreign country would be deprived of her or his Slovak citizenship. Rainer Bauböck argues in his kickoff contribution that even if both laws do not violate EU law or the Council of Europe’s Convention on Nationality, they ought to be seen as highly problematic and indefensible from a democratic conception of citizenship. There is a remarkable consensus among the contributors that the Slovak policy is indeed not acceptable. The controversy focuses therefore on assessing the legitimacy of the Hungarian offer of dual citizenship for its kin minorities. Peter Spiro, Andrei Stavila and Florian Bieber express various degrees of discomfort with the motivations behind the Hungarian policy, but emphasise its democratic legitimacy or potentially beneficial effects for the members of the minority, whereas Mária Kovács, Gábor Egry and André Liebich highlight the nationalist goals behind the Hungarian policy or its devaluation of a democratic conception of membership. For Joachim Blatter, a republican conception of citizenship should promote political participation across borders, while Kovács sees dual citizenship as a first step towards enfranchising an external electorate in order to entrench a nationalist majority in Hungary. Erin Jenne and Stephen Deets regard Victor Orbán’s move primarily as a dog and pony show for domestic voters and Eniko Horváth argues that, although a policy of extending dual citizenship to transborder minorities may cause international tensions, the present law is less tainted by suspect ethnic discrimination than the 2001 Hungarian Status Law. Rainer Bauböck’s concluding rejoinder argues that migrants and transborder minorities differ in their democratic claims to citizenship in an external home country.
    Date: 2010–10–15
  4. By: Sam Schulhofer-Wohl
    Abstract: Some commentators have argued that the housing crisis may harm labor markets because homeowners who owe more than their homes are worth are less likely to move to places that have productive job opportunities. I show that, in the available data, negative equity does not make homeowners less mobile. In fact, homeowners who have negative equity are slightly more likely to move than homeowners who have positive equity. Ferreira, Gyourko and Tracy's (2010) contrasting result that negative equity reduces mobility arises because they systematically drop some negative-equity homeowners' moves from the data.
    JEL: R21 R23
    Date: 2011–01
  5. By: Jens Høj
    Abstract: The housing market figures among the main determinants of labour mobility, as households seldom make employment and housing decisions independently of each other. This interdependence is likely to strengthen as the cost of commuting increases, due to worsening road congestion or measures that would raise fuel prices, for example to counter global warming. The Dutch housing market is more rigid than in many other OECD countries, as the result of numerous government interventions. Boosting labour mobility by easing rigidities would improve labour resource utilisation, which will be especially important as the labour force contracts with ageing. The rental sector could be made more attractive and flexible by dismantling strict rent regulation and rigid allocation mechanisms in the social housing sector. Lowering tax incentives to homeowners would improve the allocation of scarce capital and reduce house prices. Easing strict land-use and zoning regulation would increase the supply of all types of housing, reducing prices and allowing the housing stock to adjust better to residents’ needs. This Working Paper relates to the 2010 OECD Economic Survey of the Netherlands ( netherlands).<P>Renforcer la flexibilité du marché immobilier néerlandais pour améliorer la mobilité de la main-d'oeuvre<BR>Le marché immobilier est l’un des principaux déterminants de la mobilité de la main d’oeuvre, car les ménages prennent rarement de décisions en matière d’emploi et de logement de façon disjointe. Cette interdépendance est vraisemblablement appelée à se renforcer, par suite de la hausse du coût des migrations pendulaires liée à la congestion du réseau routier ou aux mesures renchérissant l’essence, par exemple dans le cadre de la lutte contre le réchauffement climatique. Le marché immobilier néerlandais est plus rigide que dans de nombreux pays de l’OCDE, par suite des nombreuses interventions du gouvernement. Stimuler la mobilité professionnelle en atténuant ces rigidités permettrait d’optimiser l’utilisation des ressources en main d’oeuvre, ce qui serait tout particulièrement important à l’heure où le nombre d’actifs diminue sous l’effet du vieillissement de la population. Le secteur locatif pourrait gagner en attractivité et en souplesse si le strict encadrement des loyers et les mécanismes rigides d’attribution étaient supprimés dans le secteur du logement social. La réduction des aides fiscales accordées aux propriétaires améliorerait l’affectation de ressources limitées et ferait baisser les prix de l’immobilier. L’assouplissement des règles foncières et du zonage entraînerait une hausse de l’offre de logements de tous types, ce qui ferait baisser les prix et permettrait de mieux ajuster le parc immobilier aux besoins de la population. Ce document de travail se rapporte à l’Étude économique des Pays-Bas de 2010 (
    Keywords: housing, labour mobility, rent regulation, social housing, own-occupied housing, logement, logement social, mobilité de la main d’oeuvre, logements en accession à la propriété, réglementation des loyers
    JEL: J61 R23 R3
    Date: 2011–01–17
  6. By: Marina Murat; Davide Ferrari; Patrizio Frederic; Giulia Pirani
    Abstract: Using data from PISA 2006, we examine the performance of immigrant students in different international educational environments. Our results show smaller immigrant gaps – differences in scores with respect to natives - where educational systems are more flexible and students’ mobility between courses and school programs is higher. Unlike previous studies, our analysis reveals no direct relation between these gaps and education models, be they comprehensive or tracking, adopted by countries.
    Keywords: international migration; educational systems; PISA
    JEL: F22 I21
    Date: 2010–11
  7. By: Holzer, Harry J. (Georgetown University)
    Abstract: This paper reviews the evidence on the effects of less-skilled immigration to the U.S., and their implications for immigration reform. It begins with a review of the costs of less-skilled immigration, in terms of competition to native-born American workers; and the benefits of such immigration in the form of lower consumer prices, higher employer profits, and greater efficiency for the U.S. economy. Effects of different legal categories of immigrants and of immigrant integration over time are considered. The paper then reviews various reform proposals and other ideas that might raise the net benefits associated with less-skilled immigration to the U.S.
    Keywords: immigration, employment, less-educated workers
    JEL: J1 J15 J18
    Date: 2011–01
  8. By: Kahanec, Martin (Central European University and IZA); Zimmermann, Klaus F. (IZA, DIW Berlin and Bonn University)
    Abstract: Whether Europe will be able to stand up to its internal and external challenges crucially depends on its ability to manage its internal mobility and inflows of international migrants. Using a unique expert opinion survey, we document that Europe needs skilled migrants, and skill mismatch is to be expected. A review of current immigration policies shows that despite a number of positive recent developments Europe lacks a consistent strategy to address this challenge effectively, paralyzed by the notion of "fortress" Europe, which we argue should be abandoned. Since significant political tensions can be expected between native actors that favor and disfavor further immigration, improving European immigration policies and procedures is a formidable challenge. This task involves the need to improve Europe's image among potential migrants, especially the high-skilled ones.
    Keywords: European Union, Europe, mobility, high-skilled migration, immigration policy
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2010–12
  9. By: Mahuteau, Stéphane (Macquarie University, Sydney); Tani, Massimiliano (Macquarie University, Sydney)
    Abstract: This paper studies the educational investment decisions of returning migrants while abroad in the context of their decisions about the choice of activity upon returning and the duration of migration. The theoretical model builds on Dustmann (1999), Dustmann and Kirchkamp (1992) and Mesnard (2004). Using data from the MIREM database we explore whether the type of skills acquired by migrants while abroad is related to the activity chosen upon return and the duration of migration. The results suggest that the type of education plays a significant role in the migration decisions of those returning as wage earners or self-employed. In particular, there is a clear positive relationship between being self-employed and having previously invested in vocational education in the host country. There is also a strong positive relationship between investing in university education abroad and becoming a wage earner. As international migration facilitates skill transfers between developed and developing countries, the economic development of the latter will increasingly depend on migrants' ability to access educational and vocational training in the developed world aside from university education. Returning migrants with vocational and professional training tend to be self-employed after returning home, and by so doing they contribute to reducing poverty in the host country.
    Keywords: return migration, human capital, education, duration of migration
    JEL: F2 J6
    Date: 2011–01
  10. By: Bisin, Alberto (New York University); Patacchini, Eleonora Patacchini (La Sapienza University of Rome, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF) and CEPR.); Verdier, Thierry Verdier (Paris School of Economics (PSE) and CEPR); Zenou, Yves Zenou5 (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: We study the relationship between ethnic identity and labor-market outcomes of non-EU immigrants in Europe. Using the European Social Survey, we find that there is a penalty to be paid for immigrants with a strong identity. Being a first generation immigrant leads to a penalty of about 17 percent while second-generation immigrants have a probability of being employed that is not statistically different from that of natives. However, when they have a strong identity, second-generation immigrants have a lower chance of finding a job than natives. Our analysis also reveals that the relationship between ethnic identity and employment prospects may depend on the type of integration and labor-market policies implemented in the country where the immigrant lives. More flexible labor markets help immigrants to access the labor market but do not protect those who have a strong ethnic identity.
    Keywords: First and second-generation immigrants; assimilation; integration policies
    JEL: F22 J15 J61
    Date: 2011–01–18
  11. By: Dahlberg, Matz (Uppsala University); Edmark, Karin (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Lundqvist, Heléne (Uppsala University)
    Abstract: In recent decades immigration of workers and refugees to Europe has increased substantially, and the composition of the population in many countries has consequently become much more heterogeneous in terms of ethnic background. If people exhibit in-group bias in the sense of being more altruistic to one's own kind, such increased heterogeneity will lead to reduced support for redistribution among natives. This paper exploits a nationwide program placing refugees in municipalities throughout Sweden during the period 1985{94 to isolate exogenous variation in immigrant shares. We match data on refugee placement to panel survey data on inhabitants of the receiving municipalities to estimate the causal effects of increased immigrant shares on preferences for redistribution. The results show that a larger immigrant population leads to less support for redistribution in the form of preferred social benefit levels. This reduction in support is especially pronounced for respondents with high income and wealth. We also establish that OLS estimators that do not properly deal with endogeneity problems|as in earlier studies|are likely to yield positively biased (i.e., less negative) effects of ethnic heterogeneity on preferences for redistribution.
    Keywords: Income redistribution; Ethnic heterogeneity; Immigration
    JEL: D31 D64 I30 Z13
    Date: 2011–01–19
  12. By: Justina AV Fischer (:Faculty of Economics, University of Rome "Tor Vergata")
    Abstract: We test whether immigrants are more prone to support terror than natives because of lower opportunity costs, using the international World Values Survey data. We show that, in general, economically, politically and socially non-integrated persons are more likely to accept using violence for achieving political goals, consistent with the economic model of crime. We also find evidence for the destructive effects of a ‘clash of cultures’: Immigrants in OECD countries who originate from more culturally distanced countries in Africa and Asia appear more likely to view using violence for political goals as justified. Most importantly, we find no evidence that the clashof-cultures effect is driven by Islam religion, which appears irrelevant to terror support. As robustness test we relate individual attitude to real-life behavior: using country panels of transnational terrorist attacks in OECD countries, we show that the population attitudes towards violence and terror determine the occurrence of terror incidents, as does the share of immigrants in the population. A further analysis shows a positive association of immigrants from Africa and Asia with transnational terror, while the majority religion Islam of the sending country does not appear to play a role. Again, we find that culture defined by geographic proximity dominates culture defined by religion.
    Keywords: K42, H56, O15, D74, Z1
    JEL: K42 H56 O15 D74 Z1
    Date: 2011–01–20
  13. By: Sáez-Martí, Maria (University of Zurich); Zenou, Yves (Department of Economics, Stockholm University and Research Institute of Industrial Economics)
    Abstract: Workers can have good or bad work habits. These traits are transmitted from one generation to the next through a learning and imitation process which depends on parents’ investment on the trait and the social environment where children live. We show that, if a high enough proportion of employers have taste-based prejudices against minority workers, their prejudices are always self-fulfilled in steady state. Affirmative Action improves the welfare of minorities whereas integration is beneficial to minority workers but detrimental to workers from the majority group. If Affirmative Action quotas are high enough or integration is strong enough, employers’ negative stereotypes cannot be sustained in steady-state.
    Keywords: Ghetto culture; overlapping generations; rational expectations; multiple equilibria; peer effects
    JEL: J15 J71
    Date: 2011–01–24
  14. By: Giulietti, Corrado (IZA)
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of the minimum wage on immigration. A framework is presented in which inflows of immigrants are a function of the expected wage growth induced by the minimum wage. The analysis focuses on the US minimum wage increase of 1996 and 1997, using data from the Current Population Survey and the census. The estimation strategy consists of using the fraction of affected workers as the instrumental variable for the growth of expected wages. The findings show that States in which the growth of expected wages was relatively large (around 20%) exhibit inflow rate increases that are four to five times larger than States in which average wages grew 10% less. Placebo tests confirm that the policy did not affect the immigration of high wage earners.
    Keywords: employment effects, expected wages, immigration, minimum wage, wage effects
    JEL: J08 J23 J38 J61
    Date: 2010–12
  15. By: Mark D., Partridge; Dan S. , Rickman; M. Rose , Olfert; Kamar, Ali
    Abstract: This paper examines whether the significant downward shift in U.S. gross migration rates after 2000 is indicative of the economy nearing a stationary spatial equilibrium. Nearness to spatial equilibrium would imply that site-specific factors such as amenities and location within the urban hierarchy have little influence on migration because their values have been capitalized into prices, causing interregional utility levels to become approximately equal. Yet, in an examination of U.S. counties, we find empirical evidence of only a mild ebbing of natural amenity-based migration after 2000 and little slowing of population redistribution from peripheral towards core urban areas. Instead, the primary finding is a downward shift in the responsiveness of population to spatially asymmetric demand shocks post-2000, and associated increased responsiveness of local area labor supply, more consistent with European regional labor markets. Quantile regression analysis suggests that this shift does not relate to a difference in regional labor market tightness across the two decades.
    Keywords: spatial equilibrium; migration; regional growth
    JEL: R32 R23
    Date: 2010–12–27
  16. By: Lubomira Anastassova
    Abstract: This paper is on measuring the gap in returns to education between foreign-born and native workers in France, Germany, and Austria and investigates the extent to which this gap can be explained by a mis-match between the actual and the years of schooling typical for a given occupation. The return to usual years of schooling across different occupations is found to be higher than that for actual years of education. In the case of correctly matched workers who have the ‘typical’ education in a certain occupation, there is no additional reward in earnings for natives compared to foreign workers. Immigrants, however, have significantly lower wage returns in being over-educated than natives but are penalized less for being under-educated.
    Keywords: Immigrants; schooling, occupations; earnings; rates of return
    JEL: F22 I21 J24 J31 J61
    Date: 2010–02
  17. By: Helmuth Cremer (Toulouse School of Economics); Catarina Goulão (Toulouse School of Economics)
    Abstract: In Europe there are countries whose welfare system is more in the tradition of Beveridge (based on universal flat benefits) and others whose system is mainly Bismarkian (based on benefits related to past contributions).Labor mobility across different countries raises concerns about the sustainability of the most generous and redistributive insurance systems. We address the sustainability of more redistributive insurance systems in a context of labor mobility. In a two/countries seting We find out that a Bismarkian insurance policy is never affected by migration but that the Beveridgean one is. Moreover, our results suggest that the race-to-the-bottom affecting tax rates may be more important under Beveridge-Beveridge competition than under Beveridge-Bismarck competition .Additionally, Bismarkian governments may find it beneficially to adopt a Beveridgean policy.
    Keywords: Social insurance, tax competition, mobility, economic integration
    JEL: H23 H70
    Date: 2010
  18. By: Rukhsana Kausar (University of Surrey); Stephen Drinkwater (University of Swansea)
    Date: 2010–09
  19. By: John Schmitt; Hye Jin Rho; Nicole Woo
    Abstract: Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) are, with Latinos, the fastest growing ethnic group in the U.S. workforce. In 2009, Asian American and Pacific Islanders were one of every 20 U.S. workers, up from one in 40 only 20 years earlier. AAPIs, again with Latinos, are also the fastest growing ethnic group in organized labor, accounting for just under one-in-20 unionized workers in 2009. Even after controlling for workers’ characteristics including age, education level, industry, and state, unionized AAPI workers earn about 14.3 percent more than non-unionized AAPI workers with similar characteristics. This translates to about $2.50 per hour more for unionized AAPI workers. Unionized AAPI workers are also about 16 percentage points more likely to have health insurance and about 22 percentage points more likely to have a retirement plan than their non-union counterparts. The advantages of unionization are greatest for AAPI workers in the 15 lowest-paying occupations. Unionized AAPI workers in these low-wage occupations earn about 20.1 percent more than AAPI workers with identical characteristics in the same generally low-wage occupations. Unionized AAPI workers in low-wage occupations are also about 23.2 percentage points more likely to have employer- provided health insurance and 26.3 percentage points more likely to have a retirement plan through their job.
    Keywords: unions, wages, benefits, pension, health insurance, asian
    JEL: J J1 J3 J31 J32 J41 J5 J58 J6 J68 J88
    Date: 2011–01
  20. By: Mary-Françoise Renard (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Zelai Xu (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Nong Zhu (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I)
    Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to study the determinants of city population growth in China during the 1990s', as well as the determinants of migrations towards cities, which constitutes the main source of urban population growth in this period. A second objective is to identify regional differences in the urban growth and migrations, that is, whether urban growth and migration patterns are different between coastal and inland provinces. Additionally, we are interested in the differences between temporary and permanent migrations towards urban areas.
    Keywords: cerdi
    Date: 2011–01–18
  21. By: Barrett, Alan; Kelly, Elish
    Abstract: In the mid 2000s Ireland experienced a large inflow of immigrants, partly in response to strong economic growth but also in response to its decision to allow full access to its labour market when EU expansion occurred in May 2004. Between 2004 and 2007, the proportion of non-nationals living in Ireland almost doubled, increasing from 7.7 to 13.1 percent. Between 2008 and 2009, Ireland experienced one of the most acute downturns in economic activity in the industrialised world, with a cumulative fall in Gross National Product of close to 14 percent. In this paper, we assess how this downturn has impacted upon the employment outcomes of non-nationals relative to natives. We find huge job losses among immigrants, with an annual rate of job loss of close to 20 percent in 2009, compared to 7 percent for natives. A higher rate of job loss for immigrants is found to remain when we control for factors such as age and education. We also show how an outflow of non-nationals is occurring. The findings have many implications. In particular, the results point to economic vulnerability for immigrants. However, they also point to a potential macroeconomic benefit to Ireland in terms of a flexible labour supply adjustment.
    Keywords: immigrants/immigration/Ireland/recession
    Date: 2010–09
  22. By: Elke Holst; Andrea Schäfer; Mechthild Schrooten
    Abstract: In this paper, we focus on network- and gender-specific determinants of remittances, which are often explained theoretically by way of intra-family contracts. We develop a basic formal concept that includes aspects of the transnational network and derive hypotheses from it. For our empirical investigation, we use data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) for the years 2001-2006. Our findings show: first, the fact that foreign women remit less money than foreign men can be explained by the underlying transnational network contract. Second, remittances sent by foreigners and naturalized immigrants have at least partly different determinants. Acquiring German citizenship increases the probability of family reunification in the destination country and decreases remittances. Third, the structure of the existing social network in Germany and the network structure in the home country both play important roles in explaining remittances.
    Keywords: Remittances, gender, foreigners, naturalized migrants
    JEL: F22 J16 D13
    Date: 2011
  23. By: Pelling, Lisa (University of Vienna); Hedberg, Charlotta (Stockholm University. Department of Human Geography); Malmberg, Bo (Stockholm University.Department of Human Geography)
    Abstract: <p> The present study explores data on transfers of gifts/economic support to relatives from a recent Swedish Household Income Survey (HEK) compiled by Statistics Sweden. It provides the first analysis of demographic determinants of remittances from Sweden based on official household survey and register data. By exploring a data set that also includes non-migrant households, it presents a unique comparison of patterns of gift-giving and intra-family support between migrant and non-migrant households. We argue that data from the Household Income Survey can be used to obtain an empirically based estimation of the determinants of remittances from Sweden. According to our results, the flows of remittances to developing countries from Sweden appear to be relatively small in comparison with remittance flows from other developed countries. The article analyses these transfers of gifts/economic support in relation to different kinds of income, education, age, time since migration, acquisition of citizenship and family situation. Analyses are made for three types of country groups : developing countries, non-developing countries and Sweden. Whereas the general propensity to give economic support to relatives is similar among native Swedes and migrants from developing and non-developing countries, the patterns of gift-giving and intra-family economic support differ significantly over the life course between individuals from different country groups. Native Swedes tend to give gifts and economic support to relatives at higher ages and when they have adult children who have moved away from home. Migrants from developing countries tend to be younger and have children living at home. The propensity of native Swedes to remit increases with increasing income. Among migrants born in developing countries, other factors than income seem to be more decisive for the propensity to remit. Diverging patterns of remittances between migrants from developing countries and the other groups indicate that remittances are strongly related to phases in the individual life course that vary with the individual migration history. <p>
    Keywords: Remittances; Intra-family transfers; Life course
    JEL: D13 D14 D31 J15 O57
    Date: 2011–01–19
  24. By: Matthieu Boussichas (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I)
    Abstract: L'émigration de travailleurs issus des pays en développement vers ceux dits développés est relativement plus qualifiée que la moyenne mondiale des travailleurs. Ceci engendre pour certains de ces PED une perte directe en capital humain non-négligeable. Une vision "optimiste" (Stark(1997)) vise à imaginer une possible compensation de cette perte par le fait qu'il existerait un phénomène d'incitation à la scolarisation lorsque le taux d'émigration augmente. Nous construisons un modèle théorique de « Brain gain » afin de déterminer si le niveau actuel d'émigration qualifiée des pays en développement est trop élevé, et si l'effet d'incitation imaginé par Stark existe. Théoriquement, une augmentation de l'émigration des travailleurs éduqués peutêtre bénéfique si le taux d'émigration qualifiée reste relativement faible. Il existe un taux optimal qui maximise les bénéfices de ces départs mais les résultats montrent que ce type d'émigration est aujourd'hui trop élevé dans les pays en développement. Ces bénéfices proviennent essentiellement de l'effet du retour des migrants. L'analyse économétrique montre qu'une plus grande ouverture des frontières des pays développés aux travailleurs émigrants qualifiés a un effet nul sur les taux d'inscription dans le secondaire et le supérieur, et un effet négatif sur le niveau d'éducation global des pays en développement. Si nous admettons qu'une augmentation de l'émigration qualifiée peut être bénéfique sous certaines conditions, nous ne soutenons pas l'idée d'un éventuel « Brain gain à la Stark ».
    Keywords: Brain drain;fuite des cerveaux;Brain gain;capital humain
    Date: 2011–01–18
  25. By: Skribans, Valerijs
    Abstract: After entering the European Union (EU) Latvia faced new possibilities in international labor market. In 2004 several member states opened their labor markets to workers from Latvia. The largest amount of labor force went to Ireland, Great Britain and Sweden. In these countries salaries were substantially higher than in Latvia, which contributed to labor migration from Latvia. The migration process has a significant influence on the labor market in Latvia: on the one hand it reduced the amount of unemployed, but, on the other hand, it caused workforce deficit in certain professions, as well as substantially influenced the level of salaries in the whole economy. These processes will also influence the future development of Latvia; therefore the research of these issues is very topical for Latvia. It is also important internationally, because in other countries, especially in the new EU member states, similar processes take place, and it is possible to elaborate a common EU labor force migration model by consolidating migration data of particular member states. Common EU labor force migration model would also be suitable for developed EU member states, in order to estimate the incoming flow of labor force and its influence on the development of national economy. Aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of labor migration on the labor market in Latvia. In order to reach the aim, several tasks are set: to determine and to investigate the factors influencing labor market and labor migration; to consolidate influencing factors in a common system and to form labor market and labor migration system dynamic explanatory and forecasting model, based on it; to forecast the most important parameters of labor migration and labor market in Latvia. This paper shows system dynamic model of labor market and labor migration in Latvia. The hypothesis of the research is: labor migration is determined primarily by the payment level in the countries under consideration and the indicator derived from it – payment differences in the countries compared; as well as employment level, unemployment level, number of work places (market capacity) and number of vacant work places. Secondary factors influencing migration may be costs connected with labor migration, formal legal barriers to migration and personal propensity to migrate. Statistics on the labor market in Latvia are not complete; there is also no common view of experts on determinant processes. In such circumstances market forecasting with quantitative methods is problematic. One approach is to simulate indicators and to estimate their influence on national economy. The model has three parts: growth (expansion) of labor force, division and migration sub models. The sub model for growth of labor force is based on division of population in various categories during transition to a working age population. Division by level of education is further used in labor market analysis in which worker groups are formed according to the education level. The paper represents mutual interaction of groups of workers as well as labor migration. The results show sensitivity of the model factors to propensity of personnel for labor migration. The elaborated model and the results represented in this paper show that separate processes in national economy such as employment, unemployment and wages can be connected not with economic situation, but with the equalization processes in the EU. Under these circumstances it could be inefficient to fight with the increase of wages in Latvia, also to decrease wages, because in the long-term it can cause more severe problems in the development of national economy.
    Keywords: darba alga; nodarbinātība; bezdarbs; migrācija; modelēšana; sistēmdinamika
    JEL: C00 C90 J80 C53 F50 J31 J10 E27 J60 E24 C50 C20 J21 J00
    Date: 2010

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