nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2010‒11‒06
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Explaining immigrant citizenship status. First and second generation immigrants in fifteen European states By Dronkers, Jaap; Vink, maarten
  2. Employment Protection and Migration By Rémi Bazillier; Yasser Moullan
  3. A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis of the Immigration and Tourism Nexus By Neelu Seeteram
  4. The determinants of the recent interregional migration flows in Italy: A panel data analysis By Etzo, Ivan
  5. The Labor Market Consequences of Internal Migration in Turkey By Ali Berker
  6. Immigrant Heterogeneity and the Earnings Distribution in the United Kingdom and United States: New Evidence from a Panel Data Quantile Regression Analysis By Billger, Sherrilyn M.; Lamarche, Carlos
  7. Civil War, Ethnicity, and the Migration of Skilled Labor By Aniruddha Mitra; James T. Bang
  8. Impact of Remittances on Poverty in Developing Countries By Rashmi Banga; Pritish Kumar Sahu
  9. A Study of Outbound Tourism From Australia By Neelu Seeteram

  1. By: Dronkers, Jaap; Vink, maarten
    Abstract: Citizenship acquisition is often seen as a crucial step in the process of integrating immigrants in host societies. This paper analyzes the question why some immigrants are more likely to have acquired destination country citizenship across European states than others and tests legal-formal, socioeconomic, cultural and micro-level explanations. We use a pooled dataset of first and second generation immigrants resident in 15 European states and apply a logistic multilevel analysis to measure country of origin effects, destination country effects, as well as the effects of individual level characteristics. Our analysis shows that second generation and first generation immigrants who arrived more than 20 years ago, immigrants with one parent born in the destination country, retired workers and persons speaking the host country language at home, are more likely to become a citizen of their country of residence. Second generation Muslim immigrants are less likely to have host country citizenship than comparable non-Muslim immigrants of the second generation. Immigrants from former colonies or from poor or political instable countries are more likely to become a citizen of their country of residence. Immigrants are also more likely to have acquired citizenship in destination countries with a low net migration rate and with citizenship laws that make citizenship accessible in comparative perspective.
    Keywords: immigration; citizenship; european union; destination; origin
    JEL: F22 O15
    Date: 2010–10–25
  2. By: Rémi Bazillier (LEO - Laboratoire d'économie d'Orleans - CNRS : UMR6221 - Université d'Orléans); Yasser Moullan (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I)
    Abstract: Interactions between social policies and migration are numerous. This paper proposes to analyze the influence of employment protection on bilateral migration. We show theoretically how employment protection may affect the probability to migrate, depending on (i) the effect of employment protection on wages, (2) the effect on the probability to be employed, and (3) relative preferences over wages or employment. Empirically, we show that employment protection differential between source and destination countries is an important determinant of bilateral migration. Bilateral migration of workers is negatively affected by this differential of employment protection. This effect is stronger for high-skilled workers. We also find that the effect of the differential is largely explained by the level of employment protection in destination countries. This factor does not have a significant impact in origin countries. These results are obtained controling econometrically for the high proportion of zero using Heckman two steps procedure. Overall, we find that, contrary to the conventional wisdom, migrants are not attracted by protective legislation. On the contrary, they tend to move where this protection is closer to the one of their origin country.
    Keywords: Migration, employment protection, labour markets
    Date: 2010–04–01
  3. By: Neelu Seeteram
    Abstract: There is a growing number of studies investigating the tourism migration nexus from a theoretical perspective. The empirical literature on the topic however, lags behind. The aim of this paper is to test for the effect of immigration on tourism and to estimate tourism immigration elasticities. The dynamic panel data cointegration technique is applied to model international arrivals for Australia. The results establish the relationship between immigration and tourism and show that trends in immigration influence arrivals to Australia. The estimated short-run and long-run migration elasticities are 0.028 and 0.09 respectively. These have implications for destination managers who can improve the efficiency of their planning exercises by incorporating additional information on immigration in their policy formulation.
    Keywords: Immigration, Tourism Demand, Dynamic Panel Data Cointegration, Australia.
    Date: 2010–05
  4. By: Etzo, Ivan
    Abstract: The present study investigates the determinants of interregional migration flows in Italy in the light of the upsurge occurred in 1996, after two decades of decreasing internal migration rates. We apply the fixed effect vector decomposition estimator (FEVD) on a gravity model using bilateral migration flows for the period 1996-2005 and show that it improves the estimates with respect to the traditional panel data estimators. We find that omitting distance and in presence of rarely time invariant covariates (e.g., population and income) the standard panel data models significantly bias the estimates. The overall economic level and the probability to find a job (proxied by per capita GDP and unemployment rate) appear to be the key variables whose changes are able to push flows of migrants away from their regions and to direct them to “better off” destinations. We find that migrants leaving the regions in the Centre-North respond differently to the push and pull forces with respect to southern migrants. We then estimate a dynamic model and find evidence for the presence of social networks which in our model take place between each pair of regions.
    Keywords: Interregional migration; gravity model; panel data; FEVD.
    JEL: O15 J61 R23
    Date: 2010–06
  5. By: Ali Berker (Abant Ýzzet Baysal University)
    Abstract: During the last 30 years, Turkey has undergone profound economic and social transformations, including fundamental shifts from the state-oriented economy to the market-oriented economy; large scale modernization investments in telecommunication and transportation services; and the low-intensity ongoing armed-conflict concentrated in the country’s Southeastern Region. For such a period, using the 1990 and 2000 Turkish Censuses, I evaluated the labor market consequences of internal migration that might have been sparked by such significant economic and social changes. Overall, the results suggest that provinces with a higher share of recent migrants may observe decreases in their native population’ labor market opportunities. While this adverse impact of the recent migrant inflows remains to be robust, it exhibits heterogeneity with respect to the skill level of natives, as well as for the labor market outcomes of different native and migrant groups.
    Keywords: Conditional CAPM
    Date: 2010–10
  6. By: Billger, Sherrilyn M. (Illinois State University); Lamarche, Carlos (University of Oklahoma)
    Abstract: In this paper we use a relatively new panel data quantile regression technique to examine native-immigrant earnings differentials 1) throughout the conditional wage distribution, and 2) controlling for individual heterogeneity. No previous papers have simultaneously considered these factors. We focus on both women and men, using longitudinal data from the PSID and the BHPS. We show that country of origin, country of residence, and gender are all important determinants of the earnings differential. For instance, a large wage penalty occurs in the U.S. among female immigrants from non-English speaking countries, and the penalty is most negative among the lowest (conditional) wages. On the other hand, women in Britain experience hardly any immigrant-native wage differential. We find evidence suggesting that immigrant men in the U.S. and the U.K. earn lower wages, but the most significant results are found for British workers emigrating from non-English speaking countries. The various differentials we report in this paper reveal the value of combining quantile regression with controls for individual heterogeneity in better understanding immigrant wage effects.
    Keywords: immigrants, earnings, quantile regression, panel data
    JEL: J31 J61 C21 C23
    Date: 2010–10
  7. By: Aniruddha Mitra; James T. Bang
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of civil war on high skilled emigration rates to the OECD over the period 1985-2000. Controlling for economic and institutional characteristics of source countries, we find that civil war increases high skilled emigration by about 5 percent on the average. However, the nature of conflict matters: While brain drain from countries with ethnic conflict is about 6-8 percent greater on average than it is from countries without conflict, brain drain from countries with nonethnic conflict is less, and statistically insignificant. Duration also matters: Each additional year of ethnic conflict worsens the brain drain by between 0.4 and 1 percent, whereas the effect of an additional year of nonethnic conflict is small and insignificant.
    Date: 2010
  8. By: Rashmi Banga; Pritish Kumar Sahu
    Abstract: Remittances are increasingly becoming an important source of external financing for the developing countries. For some of the developing countries, it forms almost 40-50% of their GDP. Though there is a growing literature on the impact of remittances on development, very few studies have empirically estimated the impact of remittances on poverty in the developing countries. This study undertakes impact analysis of remittances on poverty in developing countries at two levels. Firstly, it estimates the impact of remittances on poverty in 77 developing countries; Secondly, separate analyses are undertaken for 29 developing countries and 21 Asian developing counties, which have 5% or more share of remittances in GDP. The results of the study consistently show that remittances significantly reduce poverty in recipient countries but the results are more reliable for countries with remittances greater than 5% of GDP.
    Keywords: Economics, Remittances and poverty; Impact of Remittances on Poverty; Remittances in Developing Countries; Remittances in Asian Developing Countries
    Date: 2010
  9. By: Neelu Seeteram
    Abstract: This paper exploits the dynamic panel data cointegration technique to determine the demand elasticity of short term international departures from Australia with respect to changes in income, real exchange rate, migration and the cost of domestic air travel. The data utilised are from 1991 to 2008 for 47 destinations. The results confirm those of previous studies in showing that income is the single most important determinants of departure from Australia in the short run and in the long run. 61 percent of Australian travellers tend to repeat their visit. Increasing migrations from particular countries has a positive effect on departure to these nations. Real exchange rate is insignificant in explaining departures from Australia. International crisis occurring in year 2002 and 2003 affected departures from Australia in a negative way.
    Keywords: Outbound Tourism, Australia, Dynamic Panel Data, Panel Cointegration, Corrected Least Square Dummy Variable.
    Date: 2010–05

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