nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2010‒09‒25
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Sickness Absence and Local Cultures By Ekblad, Kristin; Bokenblom, Mattias
  2. Risk Aversion, Time Preference and Cross-border Commuting and Migration Intentions By Klaus Nowotny
  3. Expenditure Patterns of Migrant Households: Evidence from Moldova By Poppe, Robert
  4. Rural to Urban Migration in Pakistan: The Gender Perspective By Shahnaz Hamid
  5. Emigration and Wages in Honduras - A Mixed Blessing? By Gagnon, Jason
  6. Emigration Prospects and Human Capital in the Developing Countries: The Possibility of the Qualitative Brain Gain By Kouni, Mohamed
  7. Changes in the Czech wage structure: Does immigration matter? By Kamil Dybczak; Kamil Galuščák
  8. The impact of immigration on Canada’s labour market By Grady, Patrick
  9. Impact of Remittances on Poverty in Developing Countries By Rashmi Banga; Pritish Kumar Sahu

  1. By: Ekblad, Kristin (Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics); Bokenblom, Mattias (Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics)
    Abstract: Sickness absence has been found to vary substantially across geographical areas. There are large differences between different countries but also between different regions within a particular country. In the literature some of these observed differentials have been suggested to stem from differences in local norms with regard to the legitimacy of living off benefits. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of geographical and presumed cultural context on sickness absence. In order to identify this effect we compare changes in sickness related absence for individuals who move from one Swedish region to another with those occurring when individuals move within Swedish regions. Our results indicate that the region of residence is important to the individual sickness related absence. Moreover, we cannot rule out the possibility that the observed patterns are caused by local cultures regarding sickness absence and the existence of a so called “cultural illness”.
    Keywords: Sickness absence; social norms; domestic migration
    JEL: J22 R23 Z13
    Date: 2010–09–14
  2. By: Klaus Nowotny (WIFO)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of individual risk aversion and time preference on cross-border commuting and migration intentions. Both the theoretical and empirical results show that the probability of being willing to migrate decreases with risk aversion, the rate of time preference, and the maximum number of periods an individual can work abroad. The probability of being willing to commute also decreases with risk aversion, but at a smaller rate compared to the willingness to migrate, while it is (largely) unaffected by intertemporal consumption preferences. The analysis helps to shed more light on the role of time preference and risk aversion as determinants of mobility decisions, which is especially important for integrating regions where both migration and commuting are possible, as in the enlarged European Union.
    Date: 2010–09–10
  3. By: Poppe, Robert
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of temporary and permanent migration on household expenditures and on asset/durables ownership. Using household survey data from Moldova, this paper relies on the matching approach for identification. It is shown that temporary migrant and permanent migrant households have additional expenditures for food compared to non-migrant households. Concerning the ownership of goods or assets compared to the regional crisis in 1998, temporary and permanent migrant households are more likely to own more goods or assets than non-migrant households. Migration has stronger effects on ownership in rural areas. Overall, the findings indicate that temporary migration has a stronger effect on household expenditures than permanent migration. --
    Keywords: Expenditures,Remittances,Migration,Propensity Score Matching
    Date: 2010
  4. By: Shahnaz Hamid (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: This paper analyses gender dimensions in rural to urban migration (age 10 years and above) in Pakistan. The study is based on Labour Force Surveys 1996-2006. The findings of the study show that overtime internal migration (age 10 years and above) remained unchanged. Female migrants dominate in internal migration (age 10 years and above). In case of female migration, marriage plays a vital role. Further the direction of migration reveals that over time in internal migration the share of rural to urban migration has increased while urban to urban migration declined, however, the share of urban to urban migration remains highest in internal migration. Females are dominating in recent rural to urban move compared to long term and total rural to urban migration. Gender composition of intra-provincial move of rural to urban migration reveals that in all provinces female migrants are dominated. Further, the trend of intra and inter provincial move indicates that in all provinces long distance movement of females has increased. Not only the share of female migrant in rural to urban migration increased but there seems to be an increasing trend in family migration to cities. This seems to be due to the changes in agrarian structure and rural economy particularly increased in landless households, declined in share cropping and rise in small land holding. In addition to this , the trend in intra and inter-provincial move reveals that except in province of NWFP in all three provinces migration to long distance has an upward trend. Gender composition reveals that in all these three provinces the proportion of both male and female migrants increased over time.
    Keywords: Rural to Urban Migration, Agrarian Structure
    JEL: R23 Q00
    Date: 2010
  5. By: Gagnon, Jason
    Abstract: While the econometric literature on the impact of immigration on labour markets is well developed, there is a striking gap in the migration literature concerning the impact of emigration on sending countries. This paper attempts to narrow that gap by investigating whether the large and intense emigration period from Honduras from 2001 to 2007 to the US increased wages in Honduras, by focusing on skill-groups (education + experience) as defined in Borjas (2003). The estimates show that between 2001 and 2007, a 10% increase in emigration increased wages in Honduras by 1% to 3%, an increase which is slightly lower than previous findings in other countries. --
    Keywords: Wages,Emigration,Labour Markets,Development,Inequality
    JEL: J21 F22 E24
    Date: 2010
  6. By: Kouni, Mohamed
    Abstract: In this paper we study the net effect of high-skilled emigration. Hence, we elaborate a simple theoretical model that studies the net effect of high-skilled emigration. The result showed that the emigration in the case where the fraction of human capital that emigrates is inferior to the critical level (equal to the difference between one and the elasticity of brain gain with respect to emigration), as well as in the case of the strong selectivity adopted, the emigration has the possibility to create a quantitative and qualitative brain gain. Indeed, to determine the net effect of brain drain we propose a new method that decomposes the gross investment of human capital into two components: the net domestic incentive effect and the net quantitative brain drain effect. Through This decomposition we can determine the net quantitative effect that arrives from the interior situation and the one arriving from the prospects effect. Finally, we tempt to define the indicator of the qualitative effect of this phenomenon. The empirical results showed that the emigration has an important effect on the human capital investment. Thus, the majority of countries have the possibility to register a net quantitative gain. Nevertheless, little of countries only have the possibility to record a qualitative brain gain.
    Keywords: Brain drain; human capital; development
    JEL: O15
    Date: 2010–09–17
  7. By: Kamil Dybczak (DG ECFIN, European Commission.); Kamil Galuščák (Czech National Bank, Na Příkopě 28, 115 03 Prague 1, Czech Republic.)
    Abstract: Using the Albrecht et al. (2003) version of the Machado and Mata (2005) decomposition technique along the wage distribution, we find that immigrant workers do not affect changes in the Czech wage structure between 2002 and 2006 despite their substantial inflows. Instead, changes in the wage structure are explained solely by increasing returns of native workers, while changes in the observed characteristics of native workers, particularly a rising level of education, are responsible for increasing wage dispersion. The sizeable inflows of foreign workers in the sample years are concentrated among young workers with primary and tertiary education and are primarily due to rising labour demand. The negative immigrant-native wage gaps are persistent along the wage distribution and are explained mainly by differences in observed characteristics. We provide evidence on increasing returns to education of native workers along the wage distribution. The returns are higher in 2006 than in 2002, in line with the evidence in the previous literature. JEL Classification: J31, J21.
    Keywords: Wage structure, immigration, matched employer-employee data, quantile regression, wage gap decomposition.
    Date: 2010–09
  8. By: Grady, Patrick
    Abstract: This paper discusses the performance of recent immigrants in Canada's labour market and reviews some of the literature on the causes of their poor performance. The paper concludes that, using the existing selection system, it is not possible to admit annually as many as 250,000 immigrants who are capable of doing well in the Canadian labour market, despite 16 years of economic expansion, during which the unemployment rate dropped below 6%. It also speculates that The situation can only worsen as unemployment climbs, as the economy slackens.
    Keywords: immigration to Canada; labour market; labour market performance of recent immigrants
    JEL: J31 J61
    Date: 2009–10
  9. By: Rashmi Banga; Pritish Kumar Sahu
    Abstract: This study undertakes impact analysis of remittances on poverty in developing countries at two levels. Firstly, it estimates the impact of remittances on poverty in 77 developing countries; Secondly, separate analyses are undertaken for 29 developing countries and 21 Asian developing counties, which have 5 per cent or more share of remittances in GDP.
    Keywords: remittances, development,Poverty Headcount ratios, PPP, international migration, political, economic, cultural, GDP, Asian countries, developing, poverty,
    Date: 2010

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