nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2010‒08‒14
eleven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. The determinants of teacher mobility. Evidence from a panel of Italian teachers By Gianna Barbieri; Claudio Rossetti; Paolo Sestito
  2. Moving back home: insurance against labor market risk By Greg Kaplan
  3. Ethnic discrimination in the Italian rental housing market By Massimo Baldini; Marta Federici
  4. Which European model for elderly care? Equity and cost-effectiveness in home based care in three European countries By Francesca Bettio; Giovanni Solinas
  5. Intergenerational Transmission of Education among Immigrant Mothers and their Daughters in Sweden By Niknami, Susan
  6. With a little help from abroad: the effect of low-skilled immigration on the female labor supply By Guglielmo Barone; Sauro Mocetti
  7. Immigration as a Threat: The Effect of Gender Differences Among Luxembourg Residents with and without a Migration History By VALENTOVA Marie; ALIEVA Aigul
  8. Impact of global economic imbalance on migrant workers and economies of the Gulf Cooperation Council By Marzovilla, Olga
  9. The economic consequences of"brain drain"of the best and brightest: microeconomic evidence from five countries By Gibson, John; McKenzie, David
  10. Attitudes toward immigrants in Luxembourg - Do contacts matter? By VALENTOVA Marie; BERZOSA Guayarmina
  11. Demographic forecasts, migration and transition theory: a labor market perspective By Michele Bruni

  1. By: Gianna Barbieri (Ministry of Education); Claudio Rossetti (LUISS University); Paolo Sestito (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: In the Italian system teachers are allocated to schools according to a seniority-based centralized system with no role of individual schools in attracting, selecting and retaining teachers. Largely because of the rather limited pay scale, seniority-based rights to move to a particular school and geographical location represent one of the main career opportunities for tenured teachers. This paper examines the main drivers of the resulting (voluntary) mobility of Italian teachers. We find that the teachers' place of birth (after securing a tenured position, teachers try find work near their place of birth) and several features related to the student mix and the social context of the school are very important. Teachers systematically try to move away from schools where teaching is likely to be more difficult, for example where the students come from a lower socio-economic background and have poorer educational abilities even though teachers could have a more important role in boosting students' human capital accumulation. The centralized allocation system does not appear to equalize opportunities among different school environments. Furthermore, the absence of any criteria other than seniority in regulating teachers' locational preferences produces high staff turnover and a widespread lack of motivation among teachers who, all too often, are simply waiting in one school until they can move on to another.
    Keywords: The labour market for teachers, teacher mobility, geographical mobility, school characteristics
    JEL: I20 I21 I28 J45 J61
    Date: 2010–06
  2. By: Greg Kaplan
    Abstract: This paper uses an estimated structural model to argue that the option to move in and out of the parental home is an important insurance channel against labor market risk for youths who do not attend college. Using data from the NLSY97, I construct a new monthly panel of parent-youth coresidence outcomes and use it to document an empirical relationship between these movements and individual labor market events. The data is then used to estimate the parameters of a dynamic game between youths and their altruistic parents, featuring coresidence, labor supply and savings decisions. Parents can provide both monetary support through explicit financial transfers, and non-monetary support in the form of shared residence. To account for the data, two types of exogenous shocks are needed. Preference shocks are found to explain most of the cross-section of living arrangements, while labor market shocks account for individual movements in and out of the parental home. I use the model to show that coresidence is a valuable form of insurance, particularly for youths from poorer families. The option to live at home also helps to explain features of aggregate data for low-skilled young workers: their low savings rates and their relatively small consumption responses to labor market shocks. An important implication is that movements in and out of home can reduce the consumption smoothing benefits of social insurance programs.
    Date: 2010
  3. By: Massimo Baldini; Marta Federici
    Abstract: With a field experiment carried out on the Internet, this paper studies the presence of discrimination in the Italian rental housing market against persons whose names are distinctive of different ethnic groups and gender. Further, we investigate whether providing information on the job or personal characteristics of the applicant may reduce the extent of discrimination. We also study if sending ill-formed emails negatively affects immigrants’ chances of success in receiving a positive response. We created twelve fictitious individuals: four with Italian-sounding names, four with typical Arab/Muslim names and four with East European-sounding names. We made these individuals send emails to apply for vacant rental apartments in 41 Italian cities. The results provide a multifaceted picture. The degree of discrimination varies across ethnic groups, genders and the level of information, but seems to be present only in part of the country, and is also closely correlated with the size of the flat. Perfect mastery of the receiving-country’s language does not play an important role.
    Date: 2010–07
  4. By: Francesca Bettio; Giovanni Solinas
    Abstract: Long term care for the elderly is growing apace in developed economies. As growth is forcing change in existing production and delivery systems of elderly care services, the question arises as to how different systems compare in terms of cost-effectiveness, equity or quality. Based on an in depth survey carried out in Denmark, Ireland and Italy – the GALCA survey – this articles compares prevailing arrangements of home based long-term care in these three countries, focussing on the overall cost-effectiveness of the provisions as well as on employment equity for the care workers. Comparison between alternative types of provisions within each country suggests that home based care is generally, although not consistently, more cost-effective than care within institutions. Comparison of home care provisions across the three countries suggests that the Italian and the Danish systems are the most cost effective, but the Danish system is more equitable, overall. These latter findings are partly explained by progressive replacement in Italy of unpaid family carers with low cost immigrant workers directly employed by the families and often cohabiting with the elderly, the migrant-in-the-family model of long term care. This new model has spread across Southern Europe and raises complex issues of equity and sustainability from an employment perspective.
    Keywords: elderly care; long term care; cost-effectiveness; migration; welfare
    JEL: I12 I39 J14
    Date: 2009–02
  5. By: Niknami, Susan (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: This study uses extensive Swedish register data to analyze the intergenerational transmission of education between immigrant mothers and their daughters. The results show that the transmission is only slightly lower among daughters of immigrant mothers compared to native daughters. The educational relationship between mothers and daughters is further found to be nonlinear. For both groups, the intergenerational link is weaker among daughters of poorly educated mothers. Moreover, the average transmission differs across immigrant groups but these differences can be explained partly by dissimilar maternal educational backgrounds. In addition, the differences between women with an immigrant background and native women have decreased across the two generations. Finally, the educational attainment of an immigrant group has a positive but weak impact on daughters’ educational outcomes.
    Keywords: Immigrants; education; intergenerational transmission
    JEL: I20 J15 J62
    Date: 2010–08–09
  6. By: Guglielmo Barone (Bank of Italy); Sauro Mocetti (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: In this paper we examine whether and how the inflow of female immigrants who “specialize” in household production affects the labor supply of Italian women. To identify the causal effect, we exploit the family reunification motive and the network effects - i.e. the tendency of newly arriving female immigrants to settle in places where males of the same country already live - as an instrument for the geographical distribution of female foreign workers. We find that the higher the number of immigrants who provide household services the more time native Italian women spend at work (intensive margin) without affecting their labor force participation (extensive margin). The impact is concentrated on the highly skilled women whose time has a higher opportunity cost. These results also hold after a battery of robustness checks. Some further evidence confirms that the impact passes through the substitution in household work rather than complementarities in the production sector. Finally, we show that immigration arises as a substitute to publicly provided welfare services, although this raises concerns about the fairness and the sustainability of this private and informal welfare model.
    Keywords: immigration, female labor supply, household production
    JEL: J22 J61
    Date: 2010–07
  7. By: VALENTOVA Marie; ALIEVA Aigul
    Abstract: Anti-immigration sentiments have been extensively studied in recent years. Empirical studies showed that the out-group size together with the general economic condition of the host country determines the extent and the intensity of the anti-immigrant perception. While nearly all studies concluded that men and women differ in their perceptions, there is no explanation for this behaviour. Gender differences were the main focus of this paper, and we looked at two related issues. First, in our analysis, we sought a more detailed explanation of the particular reasons that foster this negative perception. Secondly, while the majority of studies focused exclusively on perceptions of the native population, we included the perceptions of the non-native populations separately and looked at the differences among three groups, with gender being the primary focus both between and within groups. We found that both gender and immigration history mediates the threat perception in Luxembourg.
    Keywords: gender; threat; attitudes; immigration; EVS
    JEL: I39 J15 J16
    Date: 2010–07
  8. By: Marzovilla, Olga
    Abstract: GCC Countries are characterized by a high incidence of foreigners on both the overall population and the labour force as well as by deep inequalities in social and economic term. These features have influenced the labour market and fuelled mutual tensions and grievances between nationals and foreigners. Consequently, these Countries need to reconcile the demands of economic growth with those of social stability. The latter requires a more equitable allocation of rights and duties along with not only more effective actions in terms of human rights, but also more stable economic dynamics, that prevents the redistributive effects of inflation. The anti-inflationary objective is a priority for Gulf Countries, which entails not only countering the effects, but also removing the causes of inflation. The experience of the new millennium showed that the dollar peg, which characterizes the exchange rate regime of the GCC Countries, was a major vehicle of inflation for Gulf economies and suggests the advisability for its amendment. The alternative proposed in this article is to adopt a basket peg system whereby national currencies could be anchored to a basket of strong currencies that mirror direction and intensity of commercial and financial flows on the international market.
    Keywords: GCC countries; exchange rate regimes; basket peg; dollar peg; inflation; migration; labour market
    JEL: F22 F32 E31 F33 F31
    Date: 2010–05–25
  9. By: Gibson, John; McKenzie, David
    Abstract: Brain drain has long been a common concern for migrant-sending countries, particularly for small countries where high-skilled emigration rates are highest. However, while economic theory suggests a number of possible benefits, in addition to costs, from skilled emigration, the evidence base on many of these is very limited. Moreover, the lessons from case studies of benefits to China and India from skilled emigration may not be relevant to much smaller countries. This paper presents the results of innovative surveys which tracked academic high-achievers from five countries to wherever they moved in the world in order to directly measure at the micro level the channels through which high-skilled emigration affects the sending country. The results show that there are very high levels of emigration and of return migration among the very highly skilled; the income gains to the best and brightest from migrating are very large, and an order of magnitude or more greater than any other effect; there are large benefits from migration in terms of postgraduate education; most high-skilled migrants from poorer countries send remittances; but that involvement in trade and foreign direct investment is a rare occurrence. There is considerable knowledge flow from both current and return migrants about job and study opportunities abroad, but little net knowledge sharing from current migrants to home country governments or businesses. Finally, the fiscal costs vary considerably across countries, and depend on the extent to which governments rely on progressive income taxation.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Tertiary Education,Emerging Markets,Debt Markets,Economic Theory&Research
    Date: 2010–08–01
  10. By: VALENTOVA Marie; BERZOSA Guayarmina
    Abstract: According to the latest official statistics, the number of immigrants in Luxembourg is approaching half the population. This demographic change raises questions concerning social inclusion, social cohesion, and intergroup conflicts. The present paper contributes to this discussion by analyzing attitudes toward immigrants and their determinants. Controlling for key socio-demographic and economic individual characteristics, we focus specifically on examining how the intensity of core contacts between nationals and inhabitants with migratory background affects attitudes toward immigrants among three groups of Luxembourg residents: natives, first-generation immigrants, and second-generation immigrants. The European Values Study data of 2008 was used in the paper. The results indicate that attitudes toward immigrants depend significantly on the origins of the residents of Luxembourg. Nationals adopt the most negative stance toward immigrants; they are followed by second-generation and first-generation immigrants. Attitudes of second-generation immigrants are closer to those of the native population than to those of first-generation immigrants, which confirms the assimilation hypotheses. Core contacts appear to play the most important role in the case of first-generation immigrants. The more connected the first-generation migrant to the native population, the more negative his/her opinion of immigrants.
    Keywords: attitudes toward immigrants; contact theory; migratory background; EVS
    Date: 2010–07
  11. By: Michele Bruni
    Abstract: The paper proposes a new logical system to build demographic scenarios based on a model that explain migration infl ows as a function of the manpower needs that countries with below replacement fertility are experiencing, as a result both of the decline in Working Age Population and employment growth. Using this approach we show that the WAP of countries characterized by low fertility will necessarily increase; that the migration balance of numerous countries will turn from negative to positive well before 2050; that the level of the international migration fl ows will progressively increase to unprecedented values so that at least 250-300 million people will move from developing countries to developed countries in the next 50 years; that the decline in fertility and the relative rates of employment growth of developed and developing countries will determine radical changes in the pattern of international migrations. The last part of the paper discusses some policy implications of this vision of the future.
    Keywords: microsimulation; inequality; in-kind benefits; higher education; university; tuition fees; subsidy
    JEL: C15 D31 H23 H42 H52 I23 I38
    Date: 2009–10

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