nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2010‒06‒11
thirteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Crime and Immigration: Evidence from Large Immigrant Waves By Brian Bell; Stephen Machin; Francesco Fasani
  2. Employment Protection and Migration By Rémi Bazillier; Yasser Moullan
  3. Temporary extra jobs for immigrants: Merging lane to employment or dead-end road in welfare? By Thomsen, Stephan L.
  4. Partition, migration, and jute cultivation in India By Fenske, James; Bharadwaj, Prashant
  5. Transcending Boundaries: Indian Nurses in Internal and International Migration By Sreelekha Nair; Marie Percot
  6. Immigration Background and the Intergenerational Correlation in Education By Deborah Cobb-Clark; Trong-Ha Nguyen
  7. Passage, Profit, Protection and the Challenge of Participation By Landau, Loren B.
  8. Migration and Trade Union Rights By Thierry Baudassé; Rémi Bazillier
  9. Is there a hidden potential for rural population growth in Sweden? By Niedomysl, Thomas; Amcoff, Jan
  10. Do international remittances cause Dutch disease? By Edsel, Beja Jr
  11. Identity and Space on the Borderland between Old and New in Shanghai: A Case Study By Iossifova, Deljana
  12. 'Bed and Board' in Lieu of salary: Women and Girl Children Domestics in Post Partition Calcutta (1951-1981) By Ishita Chakravarty
  13. Should I stay or should I go? An institutional approach to brain drain By Lea Cassar; Bruno S. Frey

  1. By: Brian Bell (London School of Economics); Stephen Machin (University College London, London School of Economics); Francesco Fasani (University College London)
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between immigration and crime in a setting where large migration flows offer an opportunity to carefully appraise whether the populist view that immigrants cause crime is borne out by rigorous evidence. We consider possible crime effects from two large waves of immigration that recently occurred in the UK. The first of these was the late 1990s/early 2000s wave of asylum seekers, and the second the large inflow of workers from EU accession countries that took place from 2004. A simple economics of crime model, when dovetailed with facts about the relative labour market position of these migrant groups, suggests net returns to criminal activity are likely to be very different for the two waves. In fact, we show that the first wave led to a small rise in property crime, whilst the second wave had no such impact. There was no observable effect on violent crime for either wave. Nor were immigrant arrest rates different to natives. Evidence from victimization data also suggests that the changes in crime rates during the immigrant waves cannot be ascribed to crimes against immigrants. Overall, our findings suggest that focusing on the limited labour market opportunities of asylum seekers could have beneficial effects on crime rates.
    Keywords: crime, immigration.
    JEL: F22 K42
    Date: 2010–05
  2. By: Rémi Bazillier (LEO - Laboratoire d'économie d'Orleans - CNRS : UMR6221 - Université d'Orléans); Yasser Moullan (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I)
    Abstract: Interactions between social policies and migration are numerous. This paper proposes to analyze the influence of employment protection on bilateral migration. We show theoretically how employment protection may affect the probability to migrate, depending on (i) the effect of employment protection on wages, (2) the effect on the probability to be employed, and (3) relative preferences over wages or employment. Empirically, we show that employment protection differential between source and destination countries is an important determinant of bilateral migration. Bilateral migration of workers is negatively affected by this differential of employment protection. This effect is stronger for high-skilled workers. We also find that the effect of the differential is largely explained by the level of employment protection in destination countries. This factor does not have a significant impact in origin countries. These results are obtained controling econometrically for the high proportion of zero using Heckman two steps procedure. Overall, we find that, contrary to the conventional wisdom, migrants are not attracted by protective legislation. On the contrary, they tend to move where this protection is closer to the one of their origin country.
    Keywords: Migration, employment protection, labour markets
    Date: 2010–04–01
  3. By: Thomsen, Stephan L.
    Abstract: We evaluate the effects of the most frequently used German welfare-to-work program on the employment chances of immigrant welfare recipients. In particular, we investigate whether program effects differ between immigrants and natives and what might cause these potential differences. Our results reveal that the program fails to achieve its objectives. The effects are more adverse for natives, but the program does not help otherwise identical immigrants to leave the welfare system either. Therefore, the program is a dead-end road rather than a merging lane to regular employment both for natives and for immigrants. --
    Keywords: Immigrants,employment programs,evaluation,decomposition of effects,Germany
    JEL: I38 C14 J61
    Date: 2010
  4. By: Fenske, James; Bharadwaj, Prashant
    Abstract: Climate change is expected to displace millions of involuntary migrants in Bangladesh. We draw on history to show that these ``environmental refugees'' can play a positive role in the regions that receive them by looking at the partition of India. We use an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to show that the migrants played a major role in India's take-up of jute cultivation. Our estimates suggest that migrants fully explain post-Partition jute cultivation. Consistent with migrants bringing jute-specific skills with them, we find that migrants increased jute yields and did not increase the cultivation of other crops.
    Keywords: Jute; Partition; Migration; India
    JEL: N55 O13
    Date: 2010–03
  5. By: Sreelekha Nair; Marie Percot
    Abstract: This paper discusses the case of Indian nurses who take up their profession as part of a family strategy, where planning for education and migration are intrinsic to the whole process. In effect, they migrate in a step-by-step phased manner: first within Indian states, mainly to metropolises, then to countries in the Persian Gulf, and further towards the West. It is not a simple, linear course of migration for them nor is it unique in any extraordinary way: yet their stories offer a terrain that is hitherto unexplored.
    Keywords: Indian nurses, family strategy, planning, education, migration, phased manner, Persian Gulf, West, extraordinary, hitherto unexplored
    Date: 2010
  6. By: Deborah Cobb-Clark (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne; and Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)); Trong-Ha Nguyen (Research School of Economics, Australian National University)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the degree of intergenerational education mobility among immigrant and native-born youth in Australia. We find that young Australians from non-English-speaking background (NESB) immigrant families have an educational advantage over their English speaking background (ESB) immigrant and Australian-born peers. Moreover, while highlyeducated Australian-born mothers and fathers transfer separate and roughly equal educational advantages to their children, outcomes for ESB (NESB) youth are most closely linked to the educational attainment of their fathers (mothers). On balance, intergenerational mobility in families with two highly-educated parents appears to be much the same for Australian-born and ESB families and is somewhat greater for NESB families. Finally, the greater importance that NESB mothers attribute to education appears to mitigate the educational penalty associated with socio-economic disadvantage.
    Keywords: education, immigration, intergenerational
    JEL: I20 J11 J13
    Date: 2010–06
  7. By: Landau, Loren B.
    Abstract: Accepting that successful 'development' is premised on a population's participation in a collective undertaking, we must understand urban residents' interactions and ambitions. In African cities being transformed by geographic and social mobility, it is u
    Keywords: migration, urbanization, African cities, social cohesion, integration,
    Date: 2010
  8. By: Thierry Baudassé (LEO - Laboratoire d'économie d'Orleans - CNRS : UMR6221 - Université d'Orléans); Rémi Bazillier (LEO - Laboratoire d'économie d'Orleans - CNRS : UMR6221 - Université d'Orléans)
    Abstract: We study in this paper both theoretically and empirically the influence of trade union rights in origin countries on bilateral migration flows. Theoretically, we propose two complementary models. In the first model, trade union rights are supposed to increase the bargaining power of workers. We model these rights as a transfer from high-skilled workers to low-skilled workers, assuming that this latter category of workers will benefit more from freedom of association and collective bargaining. However, we do have to take into account the large extent of informal economy in lots of developing countries. If trade union rights are only enforced in the formal sector, workers from this sector will benefit from a wage premium. The most qualified will then be the first winners of an improvement of such rights if they are more employed in the formal sector. We then propose different alternative indexes measuring trade union rights. We find that, all things being equal, more trade union rights tend to be associated with less migration of low-skill and high-skilled workers. Effects are not significant for intermediate skill level. Lastly, we show that social tensions may have the opposite effect. If trade union rights are associated with more social instability, it may increase the level of migration. It emphasizes the importance of social dialogue.
    Keywords: Migration ; Core Labor Standards ; Freedom of Association and collective bargaining
    Date: 2010–04–23
  9. By: Niedomysl, Thomas (Institute for Futures Studies); Amcoff, Jan (Institute for Futures Studies)
    Abstract: <p> Rural depopulation is a concern in many countries and various policy initiatives have been taken to combat such trends. This paper examines whether a hidden potential for rural population growth can be found in Sweden. If such potential exists, it implies that the development prospects for many rural areas are not as unpromising as they may seem today. If not, rapid rural depopulation can be expected and policymakers will have to increase their focus on how to lessen problems associated with population decline. In this paper we employ a combination of survey data and register data to identify the characteristics of people who have expressed a desire to move to rural areas and compare this population with those who actually do move to these areas. The results show that more people have rural residential preferences than the actual number of migrants to rural areas suggest. The findings indicate that there is a general potential for rural population growth, however, the characteristics of these two groups are similar and we can not discern any group as constituting this hidden potential. Nonetheless, we argue that this potential is unlikely to be realised in terms of rural population growth and the further implications of these findings are discussed.<p>
    Keywords: Rural; Population growth; Migration; Residential preferences; Sweden
    JEL: O15 O18
    Date: 2010–06–03
  10. By: Edsel, Beja Jr
    Abstract: The diagnosis: Dutch disease caused by international remittances afflicts the middle income countries but not the upper income and low income countries. The middle income countries can inoculate their economies from getting the disease with robust macro and sectoral economy conditions. But if they get infected, and their condition is not managed well or the illness is treated, Dutch disease could cripple their economies.
    Keywords: Dutch disease; international remittances; tradable sector; non-tradable sector
    JEL: O1 F22 O41 O5 F24 O14
    Date: 2010–06–01
  11. By: Iossifova, Deljana
    Abstract: China's urban geography has been dramatically altered over the past three decades. The co-presence of splinters in urban fabric-contrasting and continuously changing in terms of condition, use, and socio-cultural consistency-is symptomatic for the
    Keywords: Shanghai, intraurban borderland, urban restructuring, rural-to-urban migration,
    Date: 2010
  12. By: Ishita Chakravarty (Centre for Economic and Social Studies)
    Abstract: Research on women's work has attempted to analyse how the interplay of market and patriarchy leads women and men to perform different economic roles in society. This segregation on the basis of gender or the sex-typing of work plays an important role both from the demand and supply sides in determining the work profiles of women and girl children. The present study attempts to see how a particular labour market, i.e. domestic service, a traditionally male domain, became segregated both by gender and age in post partition West Bengal (WB) and mainly in its capital city Calcutta. We have argued that the downward trend in industrial job opportunities in post independence WB accompanied by large scale immigration of women, men and children from the bordering East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, led to an unprecedented increase in labour force under conditions of stagnant investment. This in turn led to a decline in the wage rate. In such a situation poor refugee women in their frantic search for means of survival gradually drove out the males of the host population engaged in domestic service in urban WB by offering to work in return for a very low and often for no wage at all. Again, poor males from the neighboring states of Bihar, Orissa and UP constituted historically a substantial section of the Calcutta labour market and many of them were employed as domestics in a state known for its prevalence of domestic service in colonial India. The replacement of male domestics by females was further facilitated by the gradual decline in inter-state migration due to lack of employment opportunities in independent WB. The second stage in the changing profile of domestic service in urban WB was arguably set by the migrating girl children from the rural areas of the state to Calcutta city in search for employment between 1971 and 1981.
    Keywords: gender roles, labour supply, labour demand, India
    JEL: J00 J16 J20
    Date: 2010
  13. By: Lea Cassar; Bruno S. Frey
    Abstract: This paper suggests that institutional factors which reward social networks at the expenses of productivity can play an important role in explaining brain drain. The effects of social networks on brain drain are analyzed in a decision theory framework with asymmetric information. We distinguish between the role of insidership and personal connections. The larger the cost of being an outsider, the smaller is the number and the average ability of researchers working in the domestic job market. Personal connections partly compensate for this effect by attracting highly connected researchers back. However, starting from a world with no distortions, personal connections also increase brain drain.
    Keywords: Brain drain, social networks, institutions, asymmetric information, Italian academia
    JEL: D82 F22 I20 J24 J44
    Date: 2010–06

This nep-mig issue is ©2010 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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