nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2010‒05‒29
four papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Gender, Transnational Networks and Remittances: Evidence from Germany By Elke Holst; Andrea Schäfer; Mechthild Schrooten
  2. Remittances and Household Consumption Instability in Developing Countries By Jean-Louis COMBES; Christian EBEKE
  3. Emigration of Skilled Labor under Risk Aversion: The Case of Medical Doctors from Middle Eastern and North African Economies By Driouchi, Ahmed; Kadiri, Molk
  4. Labour market response to globalisation: spain, 1880-1913 By Concha Beltrán; María A. Pons

  1. By: Elke Holst; Andrea Schäfer; Mechthild Schrooten
    Abstract: Remittances from Germany are substantial. Cross-border transfers to family and friendship networks outside Germany are not only made by foreigners. Many naturalized migrants send money home as well. Here, we focus on international networks and gender-specific determinants of remittances from the senders' perspective, based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) for the years 2001-2006. Our findings show, above all, that foreign women remit less money than foreign men. Using information on the social network in the home country we find, first, that the social network abroad explains part of gender differences in remittance behavior. Second, employing gender interaction terms for the social network effects suggests that remittance behavior is affected by traditional gender roles. Third, the migrant's social integration in the destination country matters. Remittance decisions of naturalized migrants do not show the aforementioned gender effect.
    Keywords: Remittances, Gender, Foreigners, Naturalized Migrants
    JEL: F24 J16 D13
    Date: 2010
  2. By: Jean-Louis COMBES (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur le Développement International); Christian EBEKE
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of remittances on household consumption instability in developing countries on a large panel of developing countries. The four main results are the following: Firstly, remittances significantly reduce household consumption instability. Secondly, the insurance role played by remittances is highlighted: remittances dampen the effect of various sources of consumption instability in developing countries (natural disasters, agricultural shocks, discretionary fiscal policy). Thirdly, the insurance role played by remittances is more important in less financially developed countries. Fourthly, the overall stabilizing effect of remittances is mitigated when remittances over GDP exceed 8.5%.
    Keywords: Remittances, consumption instability, Financial Development, shocks, threshold effects
    JEL: F29 F22 F02 D64 D02
    Date: 2010
  3. By: Driouchi, Ahmed; Kadiri, Molk
    Abstract: Abstract This is a contribution to the new economics of skilled labor emigration that focuses on the mobility of medical doctors from sending Middle East and North African countries. Economic models under risk neutrality and aversion are used. The findings show that the relative expected benefits and the emigration rate have major effects on the net relative human medical capital that remains in the source country. The effects of relative wages in the destination and sending countries besides the yield of education are likely to change the emigration patterns. Comparisons of theoretical and observed relative human capital per country averages are conducted and ensured the statistical validity of the model. The empirical results based on the available data by Docquier and Marfouk (2006 and 2008) and Bhargava, Docquier and Moullan (2010) allowed further use of the model to understand the current trends in the emigration of medical doctors. These trends confirm the magnitude of relative wages besides the level of education and the attitude toward risk as determinants of the emigration of skilled labor. The countries included in the study are all exhibiting brain gain under 1991-2004 emigration data but two distinct groups of countries are identified. Each country is encouraged to anticipate the likely effects of this emigration on the economy with the increase of health demand, the domestic wages and the increase in education capacity for medical doctors.
    Keywords: Medical skilled emigration; wages; human capital; risks.
    JEL: F22 A20 J24 I1
    Date: 2010–05–20
  4. By: Concha Beltrán (University of Valencia, Faculty of Economics,); María A. Pons (University of Valencia, Faculty of Economics,)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of globalisation (trade and migration) on the Spanish labour market between 1880 and 1913 by examining the influence that globalisation factors had on agricultural and industrial wages. Our results show that the nineteenth century grain invasion had a negative impact on agricultural wages, whereas the fall in wheat prices did not benefit industry workers. We also found that migration pushed up real agricultural and industrial wages. As agriculture was the main sector in the economy the final impact was a wage decrease. The negative impact of trade on agricultural and industrial labour markets partly explains the trade policy response of “integral protection”. However, other alternatives that would have been effective in raising living standards, such as migration policy, were not used
    Keywords: globalisation, trade, migration, tariffs, wages, living standards
    JEL: N33 N73
    Date: 2010–04

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