nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2010‒04‒11
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Organized Crime, Migration and Human Capital Formation: Evidence from the South of Italy By Nicola D. Coniglio; Giuseppe Celi; Cosimo Scagliusi
  2. Internal Mobility and Likelihood of Skill Losses in Localities of Emigration: Theory and Preliminary Empirical Application to Some Developing Economies By Driouchi, Ahmed; Zouag, Nada
  3. The Determinants of Internal Migration in a Developing Country: Quantitative Evidence for Indonesia, 1930-200 By van Lottum, J.; Marks, D.
  4. Returns to Skill, Tax Policy, and North American Migration by Skill Level: Canada and the United States 1995 - 2001 By Hunt, Gary L.; Mueller, Richard E.
  5. A longitudinal analysis of second-generation disadvantaged immigrants By Oscar Marcenaro; Muriel Meunier; Augustin de Coulon; Anna Vignoles
  6. Migration, remittances and the current economic crisis: implications for Central and Eastern Europe By Barbara Dietz
  7. Migration, Remittances and Capital Accumulation: Evidence from Rural Mexico By Vera Chiodi; Esteban Jaimovich; Gabriel Montes-Rojas

  1. By: Nicola D. Coniglio (University of Bari); Giuseppe Celi (University of Foggia); Cosimo Scagliusi (University of Bari)
    Abstract: The presence of organized crime is a pervasive feature of many developed and developing countries. Even if ‘mafia’ organizations have greatly enlarged the geographical scope of their activities, as in the past they are still deeply rooted in specific territories where their presence generates a host of influences on socio-economic performances (perverse social capital). In this paper we analyse the consequences of the presence of organized crime on the long-term accumulation of human capital, a key determinant of economic growth. To do this we build a unique dataset where - among other information - we identify municipalities where the presence of organized crime is particularly pervasive in an Italian region, Calabria, where is based one of the most powerful international criminal organization, 'Ndrangheta. Our results suggest that the presence of organized crime inhibits the accumulation of human capital both directly (reducing the incentive to invest in formal education) and indirectly by increasing migration outflows.
    Keywords: Organized crime, human capital, social capital, migration
    JEL: J61 J24 O15 O18
    Date: 2010–03
  2. By: Driouchi, Ahmed; Zouag, Nada
    Abstract: Abstract: An economic model is introduced to discuss the impacts of rural migration on skills in source and destination localities and regions. Two versions of the model are used without and with risks. In this context, the model considers that rural migration is determined by the demand for education and urban rural wage differences. The optimal decision rules attained are tested against available aggregate data for series of developing countries. The preliminary empirical results show the existence of country variations of rural emigration with varied impacts on education with likely losses in localities of emigration. Economic and social policies are to account for these impacts mainly when emphasis is placed on regional and local development programs.
    Keywords: Rural migration; bias; education; skilled labor; local development
    JEL: J31
    Date: 2010–02–10
  3. By: van Lottum, J.; Marks, D.
    Abstract: This study specifies and estimates a gravity model for inter-provincial migration in Indonesia. Using panel data for Indonesia’s 26 provinces for 5 survey years between 1930 and 2000 we show that throughout the twentieth century economic factors were more important in the explanation of inter-provincial migration patterns in Indonesia than planned migration policy aimed at the redistribution of the population. In addition, our regression analysis demonstrates that the urban primacy of Jakarta, Indonesia’s capital, had a strong effect on the direction and size of migration flows as well. Our findings thus suggest that the costly government-supported migration is not very successful and that a strongly centralized government induces migration flows to the capital. These findings have policy implications for other developing countries.
    Keywords: Internal Migration; Indonesia; Gravity Model; Policy; Development
    JEL: J61 J68 N15 O15
    Date: 2010–02–15
  4. By: Hunt, Gary L.; Mueller, Richard E.
    Abstract: Higher after-tax returns to skill in U.S. states compared to Canadian provinces have raised the issue that higher skilled Canadian workers especially will find migration to the U.S. economically attractive, and especially so after the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), provisions of which facilitate such cross-country migration through special visas. In this study we develop, estimate, and simulate a nested logit model of migration among 59 Canadian and U.S. sub-national areas using over 70,000 microdata observations on workers across all deciles of the skill distribution obtained from the U.S. and Canadian censuses of 2000/2001 Combining microdata on individual workers with area data, including estimates of after-tax returns by skill decile based on standardized wage distributions and large scale microsimulation tax models for Canadian provinces and U.S. states, we are able to consider the effects of tax policy differences across countries on worker migration. Our ability to identify highly skilled individuals using these data enables us to simulate the effects of changes to taxes (under balanced budget conditions) on the migration propensities of individuals as well as the magnitude of the aggregate migration streams. Simulations suggest that increasing Canadian after-tax returns to skill and implementing fiscal equalization (reducing the average Canadian tax rate to the average U.S. level with offsetting expenditure reductions to maintain budget neutrality) would effectively reduce southward migration and especially so amongst highly skilled workers. The required reductions in tax rates and public expenditures are relatively large however and therefore would be expected to raise other substantial public policy concerns.
    Keywords: International migration, Returns to skill, Taxes, Regional integration
    JEL: F22 H24 H71 J24 J31
    Date: 2010–03–26
  5. By: Oscar Marcenaro (Centro de Estudios Andaluces); Muriel Meunier (University of Applied Science. Switzerland); Augustin de Coulon (National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, UK); Anna Vignoles (Centre for Economics of Education (CEE), UK)
    Abstract: In this paper we consider the relative academic achievement in primary school of second generation immigrant children in the UK. We use data for a cohort born in 1970 and find that children born to South Asian or Afro-Caribbean parents have significantly lower levels of cognitive achievement in both mathematics and language in primary school. We then investigated the progression of ethnic minority children in primary school i.e. between age 5 and 10
    Keywords: Second-generation immigrants, educational disadvantage.
    Date: 2010
  6. By: Barbara Dietz (Osteuropa-Institut, Regensburg (Institut for East European Studies))
    Abstract: In recent years labour migration from Central and Eastern Europe has increased, resulting in a comparatively stable and high inflow of remittances into these countries. This briefing explores how the current economic crisis impacts on the development of migration and remittance flows into EU-10 and CIS countries. There is evidence for a reduction of migration movements in the short run and a likely decrease of remittance flows into this region.
    Date: 2009–07
  7. By: Vera Chiodi; Esteban Jaimovich; Gabriel Montes-Rojas
    Abstract: This paper studies the link between migration, remittances and productive assets accumulation for a panel of poor rural households in Mexico over the period 1997-2006. In a context of financial markets imperfections, migration may act as a substitute for imperfect credit and insurance provision (through remittances from migrants) and, thus, exert a positive effect on investment. However, it may well be the case that remittances are channelled towards increasing consumption and leisure goods. Exploiting within family variation and an instrumental variable strategy, we show that migration indeed accelerates productive assets accumulation. Moreover, when we look at the effect of migration on consumption of non-productive assets (durable goods), we find instead a negative effect. Our results then suggest that poor rural families resort to migration as a way to mitigate constraints that prevent them from investing in productive assets.
    Keywords: Migration; Remittances; Capital Accumulation; Rural Poverty
    JEL: O15 D31 J24 R23 F22
    Date: 2010

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