nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2010‒03‒20
eleven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Same, Same but (Initially) Different? The Social Integration of Natives and Immigrants in Sweden By Nekby, Lena
  2. Educating in the East, Emigrating to the West? By d'Artis Kancs; Julda Kielyte
  4. Labour mobility in Italy: new evidence on migration trends By Sauro Mocetti; Carmine Porello
  5. Does Immigration Induce 'Native Flight' from Public Schools? Evidence from a Large Scale Voucher Program By Gerdes, Christer
  6. Occupational segregation of immigrant women in Spain By Coral del Río; Olga Alonso-Villar
  7. The impact of immigration on election outcomes in Danish municipalities By Gerdes, Christer; Wadensjö, Eskil
  8. Migration modelling in the New Economic Geography By Carmen CAMACHO
  9. An Empirical Analysis of the Lewis-Ranis-FEi Theory of Dualistic Economic Development for China By Marco G. Ercolani; Zheng Wei
  10. Kosovo - winning its independence but losing its people? Recent evidence on emigration intentions and preparedness to migrate By Artjoms Ivlevs; Roswitha M. King
  11. Bordering mobility: networks in global and regional mobility regulation By Roos, Christof

  1. By: Nekby, Lena (Stockholm University Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS)
    Abstract: This study analyzes the social integration of immigrants and natives in Sweden using nine social measures; within region gender gaps in education, international and intra-national marriage propensities, young marriage, cohabitation, divorce, partner age gaps, female employment rates and female education levels. A process of social integration is found for all indicators as measured by relative gaps to natives across immigrant generations from the same region of origin. The relatively few deviations from this pattern found for some groups, primarily concerning international, intra-national marriage rates and cohabitation, is contingent on the selected sample of second generation immigrants with parents from the same country of origin. When estimation includes the majority of second generation immigrants with mixed backgrounds, a process of social integration is found for all groups and all social measures.
    Keywords: Immigration; Social Integration; Acculturation
    JEL: F22 J15 J61
    Date: 2010–03–10
  2. By: d'Artis Kancs; Julda Kielyte
    Abstract: This paper examines the potential impacts of East-West migration of talents on the innovative capital and hence the long-run growth prospects in Eastern sending countries. Complementing previous studies, we examine the impact of high skill migration not only on the formation of human capital, but also consider migration's impact on knowledge capital in the sending countries. In line with previous studies we find that in the short- to medium-term high skill migration strictly reduces national innovative capital and hence increases the gap between East and West. However, these effects might be mitigated by factors such as reinforced education of workers, productive investment of remittances, return migration and increased knowledge transfer. Given that the emigration of highly skilled affects human capital differently than knowledge capital, addressing the adverse impacts of the most talented and highly skilled worker emigration efficiently, differentiated policies are required for human capital and knowledge capital.
    Keywords: International labour migration, skilled workers, growth, human capital.
    JEL: D50 D80 F22 F24 H52 I21 J24 J61 O15
    Date: 2010–01–01
  3. By: Ghelfi, Rino; Rivaroli, Sergio
    Abstract: During the last years Italy, a country characterized by a long history of emigration, has seen a quickly growth of the phenomenon of immigration. Our Nation seems to be a âdocking pointâ for new and substantial flow of immigrants mainly from Eastern Europe looking for new work opportunities. The profile of these people is usually characterized by high level of education as well as flexibility and adaptability. For the national economy in general, and for the agricultural sector in particular, this new migration flows represent an effective answer to the aversion for the agricultural job expressed by many potential autochthon workers. Which are the characteristics of extra-community agricultural labour? Which are the characteristics of migration flows linked to the agricultural labour in three provinces of one of the main agricultural regions in Italy? Based on National Institute of Welfare informationâs (INPS), the research underlines the diversification of this phenomenon among Italian regions as well as its dynamism. In Italy, during the last five years, the proportions of foreign agricultural workers increased up to 50%, and peaked in four Italian regions: Friuli Venezia Giulia, Campania, Piemonte and Emilia-Romagna. In Emilia-Romagna, in particular, immigrants represent almost a quarter of total agricultural workers and most of them aged less than forty years. The analysis of information about labour market in the agricultural sector in some Emilia-Romagna provinces shows that immigrants are concentrated in few farms. Farmer prefers to engage homogeneous ethnic groups to assure cultural affinity among the employees. In the local agricultural labour market the immigrants coming from Eastern Europe, in particular from Poland and Romania, are aged between 22 and 36 years, are unemployed in their country, they have a driving license and a good knowledge of Italian and English language.
    Keywords: Agricultural Labour Markets, Immigrant Workers, Human Capital, Skills, Agribusiness, Labor and Human Capital, J43, J61, J24,
    Date: 2009–12
  4. By: Sauro Mocetti (Bank of Italy); Carmine Porello (Financial Attaché - Beijing)
    Abstract: The paper provides an analysis of labour mobility in Italy, with a joint analysis of residence transfers and "long-range†commuting. In the period 1990-2005, migration inflows have increased in the Centre North, both in short- and long-range component. In the South, by contrast, the low short-range mobility has decreased further, while the emigration toward the North remained significant; moreover, the high-educated outflows have increased significantly. The empirical findings show that South-North migration continues to be driven by the large economic differentials between the two areas. In the second half of the nineties, the widening gap on the employment rate, the downsizing of the public sector and the reduction of the gap on house prices have prompted a growing number of people to emigrate. In the current decade the strong growth of house prices in the Centre North has contributed to reduce the phenomenon. The spread of temporary contracts and immigration from abroad have also affected the migration propensity of natives and structurally changed the nature of mobility.
    Keywords: internal migration, commuting
    JEL: J61 O15 R23
    Date: 2010–01
  5. By: Gerdes, Christer (SOFI, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: Recent studies point to a positive correlation between ethnic heterogeneity due to immigration and the propensity of opting out from public schools for private alternatives. However, immigration across regions is hardly exogenous, which obstructs attempts to reveal causal mechanisms. This paper explores changes in the immigrant population in Danish municipalities 1992-2004, a period marked by a substantial influx of refugees, where a state-sponsored placement policy restricted their initial choice of residence. Besides such demographic changes, for more than hundred years Denmark has allowed parents to enroll their children into so called 'free schools', i.e. schools that are privately operated. Taken together, this provides a unique opportunity to determine if there has been 'native flight' from public schools to free schools. Results from this study indicate an increase in native Danes propensity to enroll their children in free schools as the share of children with immigrant background becomes larger in their municipality of residence. The effect is most pronounced in small and medium sized municipalities, while it seems absent in larger municipalities. One explanation for the latter holds that residential segregation within larger municipalities makes a choice of private alternatives less attractive.
    Keywords: school choice, immigration, private schools
    JEL: H7 I28 J15 J78 R5
    Date: 2010–02
  6. By: Coral del Río (Universidade de Vigo); Olga Alonso-Villar (Universidade de Vigo)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze occupational segregation in the Spanish labor market from a gender and an immigration perspective. In doing so, several local and overall segregation measures are used. Our results suggest that immigrant women in Spain suffer a double segregation since segregation affects them to a greater extent than it does either native women or immigrant men. There are, however, remarkable discrepancies among the segregation of immigrant women depending on their region of origin. Thus, immigrant women from the European Union (EU) have the lowest occupational segregation, while segregation seems particularly intense in the group of women from European countries outside the EU bloc and Asia (the levels of which are higher than that of Latin American and African women).
    Keywords: immigration; gender; occupational segregation; local segregation; overall segregation
    JEL: J16 D63
    Date: 2010
  7. By: Gerdes, Christer (Stockholm University Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS); Wadensjö, Eskil (Stockholm University Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS)
    Abstract: In this paper we study the effects on support for different political parties following an increase in the immigrant share in Danish municipalities during a period marked by a substantial influx of refugees. The two anti-immigration parties in the political landscape of Denmark are among those that win votes as a result of this influx, but so also does a pro-immigration party on the left. Controlling for a number of social-economic aspects, our results thus point to some discontent with immigration; however, they do not support predictions of a general decline for political parties that are in favour of a generous welfare state, as proposed by some scholars.
    Keywords: immigration; immigrants; elections; racism; xenophobia
    JEL: D72 J15 J61
    Date: 2010–03–10
  8. By: Carmen CAMACHO (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES))
    Abstract: The benchmark of this paper is the Fujita and Thisse (2002) core-periphery model, which adds a R&D sector with skilled labor to create new varieties for the modern sector. The number of R&D firms increases not only with the number of existing patents and knowledge spillovers but also with the number of skilled workers who can migrate and choose theregion offering the better lifetime salary.The main objective of the present work is to analyse the long-term consequences of the choice of the migration law in Fujita and Thisse(2002)and in other comparable models. After describing throughoutly our benchmark,we introduce a different migration law ˆ la Krugman (1991).Although the change in the migration law implies that individuals do not foresee price changes and hence their choice is somehow less optimal, the steady state outcome does not vary qualitatively:the unique steady state is a symmetric distribution of labor across regions. Later we change the benchmark model to avoid the so called monotonic convergence hypothesis, about which we discuss at large in the paper. When we model the economy using Romer (1990) two sector model applied to two regions allowing for skilled migration, then there exists a solution path that converges to a steady state which exhibits a distribution of skilled workers amongst regions which is no longer symmetric. In effect, the new steady state depends on technology, fixed costs, knowledge spill-overs and transportation costs.
    Keywords: Economic geography,Spatial Dynamics, Migrations, Growth
    Date: 2010–02–15
  9. By: Marco G. Ercolani; Zheng Wei
    Abstract: We employ the Lewis-Ranis-Fei theory of dualistic economic development as a framework to investigate China's rapid growth over 1965-2002. We find that China's economic growth is mainly attributable to the development of the non-agricultural (industrial and service) sector, driven by rapid labour migration and capital accumulation. Our estimates of the sectoral marginal productivity of labour indicate that China's 1978 Economic Reform coincided with moving from phase one to phase tow growth, as defined in the Lewis-Ranis-Fei model. This implies that phase three growth could be achieved by commercialisation of the Chinese agricultural labour market.
    Keywords: agricultural, development, dualistic growth, labour migration, subsistence
    JEL: O14 O15 O18 O41 O47 O53
    Date: 2010–01
  10. By: Artjoms Ivlevs (Department of Economics, University of the West of England); Roswitha M. King (Østfold University College and University of Latvia)
    Abstract: Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia in February 2008, but substantial proportions of its population are expressing their lack of confidence by preparing to emigrate. In this paper we present evidence from a customized post-independence survey (1367 face-to face interviews) on emigration intentions in Kosovo, carried out in June 2008. 30 % of the Albanian-speaking-majority respondents have taken concrete steps to move abroad, and emigration intentions have again risen to their pre-independence peak. Strikingly, it is the better educated and those with higher incomes that are more likely to exit. Ethnic Serbs (the largest minority group) are less likely to emigrate than Kosovo’s ethnic majority.
    Keywords: South-East Europe, Kosovo, emigration intentions, brain-drain, determinants of emigration decision, ethnic minorities.
    JEL: F22 J15 J24 J61
    Date: 2010–01
  11. By: Roos, Christof
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to develop an analytical framework which contributes to the understanding of mobility regulation. While most literature focuses on international efforts to control migration the perspective is widened by looking at mobility, encompassing short-term cross border movements for the purpose of travel and labor. Regulatory modes are specified and described ranging from more binding bi- and multilateral agreements to less binding governmental networks. Little attention has been paid to the latter modes which increasingly define state to state cooperation. Since mobility regulation on the global level is in a nascent stage, regulatory modes are assessed within regional economical integration movements such as the EU and NAFTA. Mobility regulation within the two blocs differs greatly; within the EU framework freedom of movement and establishment has been achieved while travel and labor in the North American context are mostly regulated in the respective national realms. Still, forms of cooperation on mobility have been established in both cases with similar functions: the socialization of officials into trusting each other. ; Die Kontrolle globaler Mobilität durch regionale gouvernementale Netzwerke ist das Thema des Artikels. Der Vergleich von Moblititätsregulierung in der Europäischen Union (EU) mit der Nordamerikanischen Freihandelszone (NAFTA) soll die angewandten Modi der Regulierung aufzeigen. Ziel der Untersuchung ist die Entwicklung eines analytischen Rahmens, welcher zum Verständnis von Mobilitätsregulierung beiträgt. Während sich sehr viele Arbeiten der internationalen Zusammenarbeit in der Migrationskontrolle widmen, erweitert dieser Beitrag die Perspektive und betrachtet die Regulierung von kurzfristigen grenzüberschreitenden Bewegungen. Das heißt, es werden Regelungen betrachtet, die internationale kurzfristige Arbeitsmigration sowie die Kontrolle von Reisenden steuern. Dabei konzentriert sich der Artikel auf Mobilitätsregulierung, die durch bi- und multilaterale Abkommen festgeschrieben werden aber auch innerhalb von weniger verbindlichen gouvernementalen Netzwerken getroffen werden. Die Entstehung dieser Netzwerke im Bereich der Mobilitätspolitik fand bisher kaum Beachtung auch wenn diese die Kooperation zwischen Staaten immer mehr bestimmen. Verglichen werden die Netzwerke innerhalb derer die USA mit Mexiko und Kanada kooperieren. Zwei kleinere EU Mitgliedstaaten, Österreich und Finland, exemplifizieren diese Kooperation innerhalb des EU Rahmens. Die Modi der Regulation als auch die Folgen der Kooperation differieren stark; innerhalb des EU Rahmens konnte Bewegungs- bzw. Niederlassungsfreiheit für Touristen und mobile Arbeiter realisiert werden. In Nordamerika werden beide Mobilitätsformen noch weitgehend national reguliert. Dennoch lässt sich auch dort Kooperation feststellen, die vor allem innerhalb von Netzwerken stattfindet. In beiden Fällen zeigt sich eine ähnliche Funktion der Netzwerke: die Verstetigung von Vertrauen zwischen den Vertretern der Kontrollbehörden. --
    Date: 2010

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