nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2010‒01‒30
thirteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Does Immigration Induce ‘Native Flight’ from Public Schools? Evidence from a large scale voucher program By Gerdes, Christer
  2. Indian Entrepreneurial Success in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom By Robert W. Fairlie; Harry Krashinsky; Julie Zissimopoulos; Krishna B. Kumar
  3. Mothers’ Investments in Child Health in the U.S. and U.K.: A Comparative Lens on the Immigrant 'Paradox' By Margot Jackson; Sara McLanahan; Kathleen Kiernan
  4. Do Migrants Improve Governance at Home? Evidence from a Voting Experiment By Catia Batista; Pedro Vicente
  5. Labor Market and Immigration Behavior of Middle-Aged and Elderly Mexicans By Emma Aguila; Julie Zissimopoulos
  6. Are Foreign Migrants more Assimilated than Native Ones? By Riccardo Faini; Steiner Strom; Alessandra Venturini; Claudia Villosio
  7. Economic Impact of International Migration and Remittances on Philippine Households- What We Thought We Knew, What We Need to Know By Aniceto C. Orbeta Jr
  8. Cultural Integration in Europe By Amelie F. Constant; Olga Nottmeyer; Klaus F. Zimmermann
  9. Brainy Africans to Fortress Europe: For Money or Colonial Vestiges? By Amelie F. Constant; Bienvenue N. Tien
  10. Issues and Prospects on the Movement of Natural Persons and Human Capital Development in the Philippine-American Economic Relations By Tereso S. Tullao Jr.; Michael Angelo A. Cortez
  11. Return Migrants in Western Africa: Characteristics and Labour Market Performance By Philippe De Vreyer; Flore Gubert; Anne-Sophie Robilliard
  12. International Remittances and Household Expenditures- The Philippine Case By Aubrey D. Tabuga
  13. Workers' Remittances and Growth in MENA Labor Exporting Countries By Sufian Eltayeb Mohamed

  1. By: Gerdes, Christer (Stockholm University Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS)
    Abstract: Recent studies point to a positive correlation between ethnic heterogeneity due to immigration and the propensity of opting out from public schools for private alternatives. However, immigration across regions is hardly exogenous, which obstructs attempts to reveal causal mechanisms. This paper explores changes in the immigrant population in Danish municipalities 1992-2004, a period marked by a substantial influx of refugees, where a state-sponsored placement policy restricted their initial choice of residence. Besides such demographic changes, for more than hundred years Denmark has allowed parents to enroll their children into so called ‘free schools’, i.e. schools that are privately operated. Taken together, this provides a unique opportunity to determine if there has been ‘native flight’ from public schools to free schools. Results from this study indicate an increase in native Danes propensity to enroll their children in free schools as the share of children with immigrant background becomes larger in their municipality of residence. The effect is most pronounced in small and medium sized municipalities, while it seems absent in larger municipalities. One explanation for the latter holds that residential segregation within larger municipalities makes a choice of private alternatives less attractive.
    Keywords: school choice; immigration; private schools
    JEL: H70 I28 J15 J78 R50
    Date: 2010–01–22
  2. By: Robert W. Fairlie; Harry Krashinsky; Julie Zissimopoulos; Krishna B. Kumar
    Abstract: Indian immigrants in the United States and other wealthy countries are successful in entrepreneurship. Using census data from the three largest developed countries in the world receiving Indian immigrantsÑthe United States, United Kingdom and Canada-the authors examine the performance of Indian entrepreneurs and the causes of their success. In the United States, Indian entrepreneurs have average business income that is substantially higher than the national average and is higher than any other immigrant group. High levels of education among Indian immigrants in the United States are responsible for nearly half of the higher level of entrepreneurial earnings while industry differences explain an additional 10 percent. In Canada, Indian entrepreneurs have average earnings slightly below the national average but they are more likely to hire employees, as are their counterparts in the United States and United Kingdom. The Indian educational advantage is smaller in Canada and the United Kingdom contributing less to their entrepreneurial success.
    JEL: L26 J15
    Date: 2009–12
  3. By: Margot Jackson (Brown University); Sara McLanahan (Princeton University); Kathleen Kiernan (University of York)
    Abstract: Research on the immigrant paradox healthier behaviors and outcomes among more socioeconomically disadvantaged immigrants is mostly limited to the U.S. Hispanic population and to the study of birth outcomes. Using data from the Fragile Families Study and the Millennium Cohort Study, we expand our understanding of this phenomenon in several ways. First, we examine whether the healthier behaviors of Hispanic immigrant mothers extend to other foreign-born groups, including non-Hispanic immigrant mothers in the U.S. and white, South Asian, black African and Caribbean, and other (largely East Asian) immigrants in the U.K, including higher SES groups. Second, we consider not only the size of the paradox at the time of the child's birth, but also the degree of its persistence into early childhood. Third, we examine whether nativity disparities are weaker in the U.K., where a much stronger welfare state makes health information and care more readily accessible. Finally, we examine whether differences in mothers’ instrumental and social support both inside and out of the home can explain healthier behaviors among the foreign-born. The results suggest that healthier behaviors among immigrants are not limited to Hispanics or to low SES groups; that nativity differences are fairly persistent over time; that the immigrant advantage is equally strong in both countries; and that the composition and strength of mothers’ support plays a trivial explanatory role in both countries. These findings lead us to speculate that what underlies nativity differences in mothers’ health behaviors may be a strong parenting investment on the part of immigrants.
    Keywords: Fragile Families Study, Millennium Cohort Study, immigrants, behavior
    JEL: D10 D19 D69 H31 J12
    Date: 2009–12
  4. By: Catia Batista (Department of Economics and Institute for International Integration Studies, Trinity College Dublin; IZA); Pedro Vicente (Department of Economics and Institute for International Integration Studies, Trinity College Dublin; CSAE-Oxford; BREAD)
    Abstract: This paper tests the hypothesis that international migration experiences may promote better institutions at home by raising the demand for political accountability. In order to examine this question, we use a simple postcard voting experiment designed to capture the population’s desire for better governance. Using data from a tailored household survey, we examine the determinants of voting behavior in our experiment, and isolate the positive effect of international emigration on the demand for political accountability. We find that this effect can be mainly attributed to the presence of return migrants, particularly to those who emigrated to countries with better governance.
    Keywords: international migration, governance, political accountability, institutions, effects of emigration in origin countries, household survey, Cape Verde, sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: F22 O12 O15 O43 P16
    Date: 2009–12
  5. By: Emma Aguila; Julie Zissimopoulos
    Abstract: This study analyzed the retirement behavior of Mexicans with migration spells to the United States that returned to Mexico and non-migrants. The analysis is based on rich panel data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). Approximately 9 percent of MHAS respondents age 50 and older reported having lived or worked in the United States. These return migrants were more likely to be working at older ages than non-migrants. Consistent with much of the prior research on retirement in the United States and other developed countries, Mexican non-migrants and return migrants were responsive to institutional incentives. Both groups were more likely to retire if they had publicly provided health insurance and pensions. In addition, receipt of U.S. Social Security benefits increased retirement rates among return migrants. Return migrants were more likely to report being in poor health and this also increased the likelihood of retiring. The 2004 draft of an Agreement on Social Security would coordinate benefits across United States and Mexico boundaries to protect the benefits of persons who have worked in foreign countries. The agreement would likely increase the number of authorized and unauthorized Mexican workers and family member eligible for Social Security benefits. The responsiveness of current, older Mexican return migrants to pension benefits, suggests that an agreement would affect the retirement behavior of Mexican migrants.
    JEL: J14 J21 J61
    Date: 2009–12
  6. By: Riccardo Faini; Steiner Strom; Alessandra Venturini; Claudia Villosio
    Abstract: The paper compares the pattern of wage assimilation of foreigners with both native immigrants and local natives in Italy, a country with large internal and international migration. This comparison, not yet exploited, yields understanding of the role played by language and knowledge of social capital. We use the administrative dataset on dependent employment (WHIP), to estimate a fixed effect model of the weekly wages of males aged 18-45 with controls for selection in return migration and unobserved heterogeneity. The three groups of workers start their careers at the same wage level but, as experience increases, the wage profiles of foreigners and natives, both immigrants and locals, diverge. A positive selection in the returns prevails, so that the foreign workers with lower wages are the most likely to stay in Italy. Also an “ethnic” skill differential emerges and a negative status dependence for those entering at low wage level.
    Keywords: Migration, Assimilation, Wage differential.
    JEL: J31 J61 C23
    Date: 2009
  7. By: Aniceto C. Orbeta Jr (Philippine Institute for Development Studies)
    Abstract: Several studies on the impact of international migration and remittances on household outcomes have been released recently. Many were found to have conflicting results. This paper attempts to shed light on the conflicting results by reviewing the empirical studies that use large scale and nationally representative data sets from the Philippines. The focus on these types of studies was deliberate so that sample size problems are minimized and particular attention can be given to the methodologies used in appreciating the results. The main purpose of the review is to highlight the differences in the methodologies employed and their implications on the results.
    Keywords: International Migration, Remittances, Household Outcomes, Philippines
    JEL: F22 O15 O10
    Date: 2010–01
  8. By: Amelie F. Constant; Olga Nottmeyer; Klaus F. Zimmermann
    Abstract: This chapter investigates the integration processes of immigrants in Germany by comparing certain immigrant groups to natives differentiating by gender and immigrant generation. Indicators which are supposed to capture cultural integration of immigrants are differences in marital behavior as well as language abilities, ethnic identification and religious distribution. A special feature of the available data is information about overall life satisfaction, risk aversion and political interest. These indicators are also presented. All of these indicators are depicted in comparison between natives and immigrants differentiated by ethnic origin, gender and generation. This allows visualization of differences by ethnic groups and development over time. Statements about the cultural integration processes of immigrants are thus possible. Furthermore, economic integration in terms of female labor force participation is presented as an additional feature. Empirical findings suggest that differences among immigrants and between immigrants and Germans do exist and differ significantly by ethnic origin, gender and generation. But differences seem to diminish when we consider the second generations. This indicates greater adaption to German norms and habits, and thus better cultural, socio-economic and political integration of second generation immigrants in Germany.
    Date: 2009
  9. By: Amelie F. Constant; Bienvenue N. Tien
    Abstract: Economic reasons along with cultural affinities and the existence of networks have been the main determinants explaining migration flows between home and host countries. This paper reconsiders these approaches combined with the gravity model and empirically tests the hypothesis that ex-colonial links can still play an important role in the emigration decision. We employ a general linear mixed model, and apply it to the case of skilled, educated and talented Africans, who migrate to Fortress Europe over the period of 1990 to 2001. While we find some differences in the exodus of skilled Africans by sub-regions, the magnitude of the colonial vestige in Africa is a significant determinant of emigration flows. Overall, Portugal is preferred to the UK which is preferred more than Belgium, Germany and Italy. Brainy Africans are, however, indifferent between the UK, France and Spain as a destination country. Established immigrant networks and higher standards of living with job opportunities in the host country are also very important drivers of the emigration of brainy Africans to the European ex-colonial powers.
    Keywords: Skilled migration, Africa, colonization, networks, economic reasons
    JEL: F22 O15 J61
    Date: 2009
  10. By: Tereso S. Tullao Jr.; Michael Angelo A. Cortez (Philippine Institute for Development Studies)
    Abstract: The United States of America is the top trading partner of the Philippines and also the top destination of highly skilled and professional Filipino workers. This paper explores the possibility of a free trade agreement (FTA) that covers the asymmetries of the two countries in labor, services and human resources development, particularly educational services. The existing FTAs of the U.S. were examined to seek for provisions the Philippines may adopt for a freer movement of natural persons. However, there are barriers inherent in the U.S. immigration and recent U.S. Congressional pronouncements to uphold the primacy of their immigration policy, thus, no more similar liberal agreements could be entered into. Issues on the movement of workers, particularly mutual recognition, accreditation, taxation and the refund of social security contributions were raised. For the educational sector, the issue of public subsidy and national treatment of foreign service providers were also brought up to clarify the objective of bringing access to students. The paper concluded that for an FTA concerning the movement of natural persons to materialize, the Philippines should weigh its sacrifices against what it will be requesting from the U.S. within the context of the overall importance of the maximizing opportunities for the Filipino worker.
    JEL: O15 F13 F10
    Date: 2010–01
  11. By: Philippe De Vreyer (Université de Lille II, DIAL); Flore Gubert (DIAL, IRD, Paris); Anne-Sophie Robilliard (DIAL, IRD, Paris)
    Abstract: (english) _________________________________ (français)
    Date: 2009–09
  12. By: Aubrey D. Tabuga (Philippine Institute for Development Studies)
    Abstract: This paper examines the general relationship between remittances and household expenditures in the Philippines by doing a cross-sectional analysis of the 2003 Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES). Unlike past research works, it provides a comprehensive overview of the effect of remittance on spending behavior by looking not only at common categories like food, education, and housing but also vices like tobacco and alcohol. It addressed some methodological issues in examining remittance effects. These are the presence of zero expenditures, heterogeneity of the nationally representative sample, and inaccuracy of the FIES data on remittance. Zero expenditures were taken into account by using the censored Tobit model while heterogeneity was addressed by employing the Quantile Regression technique. Also, the FIES data on remittances was corrected by excluding the investment and pension components from the original remittance data used by past studies to arrive at more accurate estimate of remittances sent by family members working abroad and its effects. The study found that while there are evidences that households receiving remittances tend to consume more conspicuously on consumer items, they also invest more on education, housing, medical care and durable goods. There is no clear relationship though between remittances and tobacco and alcohol.
    Keywords: remittances, remittance income effect, household expenditures/spending, quantile regression analysis
    JEL: R20 D14 D10
    Date: 2010–01
  13. By: Sufian Eltayeb Mohamed (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki)
    Abstract: This paper presents an empirical examination of effects of workers’ remittance on economic growth in a sample of 7 remittance-receiving MENA countries. In order to empirically analyze the impact of remittances we estimate growth equations using a set of 7 MENA labor exporting countries during the period 1975-2006. A standard growth models are estimated using both fixed-effects and random effects models. The empirical results show the support of the fixed –effects method as the random effects model is rejected in statistical tests. The results show the support for the view that remittances have a positive impact on growth both directly and indirectly through their interactions with financial and institutional channels.
    Keywords: Remittances, Economic Growth, Panel Data, Fixed effects, MENA Countries
    JEL: C3 F3 F22
    Date: 2009

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