nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2009‒09‒05
ten papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Structural Estimation and Policy Evaluation in Developing Countries By Petra E. Todd; Kenneth I. Wolpin
  2. Spatial Influences on the Employment of U.S. Hispanics: Spatial Mismatch, Discrimination, or Immigrant Networks? By Judith Hellerstein; Melissa McInerney; David Neumark
  3. Neighbors and Co-Workers: The Importance of Residential Labor Market Networks By Judith Hellerstein; Melissa McInerney; David Neumark
  4. Intermarriage and Immigrant Employment:The Role of Networks By Delia Furtado; Nikolaos Theodoropoulos
  5. The optimal choice of a reference standard for income comparisons: indirect evidence from immigrants’ return visits By Stichnoth, Holger
  6. Migration, Self-selection, and Income Distributions: Evidence from Rural and Urban China By Xing, Chunbing
  7. Are all Migrants Really Worse off in Urban Labour Markets?: New empirical evidence from China By Jason Gagnon; Theodora Xenogiani; Chunbing Xing
  8. Immigration and the export decision to the home country By Pamina Koenig
  9. Reasons for Remitting By Stark, Oded
  10. Ethnic diversity and attitudes towards redistribution: a review of the literature By Stichnoth, Holger; Straeten, Karine Van der

  1. By: Petra E. Todd (Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania); Kenneth I. Wolpin (Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the use of discrete choice dynamic programming (DCDP) methods for evaluating policies of particular relevance to developing countries, such as policies to reduce child labor and increase school attendance, to improve school quality, to affect immigration flows, to expand old age pension benefits, or to foster small business investment through microfinance. We describe the DCDP framework and how it relates to static models, illustrate its application with an example related to conditional cash transfer programs, consider numerous empirical applications from the literature of how the DCDP methodology has been used to address substantively important policy issues, and discuss methods for model validation.
    Keywords: development economics, policy evaluation, dynamic discrete choice models, schooling, migration
    JEL: J22 C21 H31
    Date: 2009–07–24
  2. By: Judith Hellerstein; Melissa McInerney; David Neumark
    Abstract: Employment rates of Hispanic males in the United States are considerably lower than employment rates of whites. In the data used in this paper, the Hispanic male employment rate is 61 percent, compared with 83 percent for white men.1 The question of the employment disadvantage of Hispanic men likely has many parallels to the question of the employment disadvantage of black men, where factors including spatial mismatch, discrimination, and labor market networks have all received attention as contributing factors. However, the Hispanic disadvantage has been much less studied, and the goal of this paper is to bridge that gap. To that end, we present evidence that tries to assess which of the three factors listed above appears to contribute to the lower employment rate of Hispanic males. We focus in particular on immigrant Hispanics and Hispanics who do not speak English well.
    Date: 2009–01
  3. By: Judith Hellerstein; Melissa McInerney; David Neumark
    Abstract: We specify and implement a test for the importance of network effects in determining the establishments at which people work, using recently-constructed matched employer-employee data at the establishment level. We explicitly measure the importance of network effects for groups broken out by race, ethnicity, and various measures of skill, for networks generated by residential proximity. The evidence indicates that labor market networks play an important role in hiring, more so for minorities and the less-skilled, especially among Hispanics, and that labor market networks appear to be race-based.
    Date: 2009–01
  4. By: Delia Furtado; Nikolaos Theodoropoulos
    Abstract: Social networks are commonly understood to play a large role in the labor market success of immigrants. Using 2000 U.S. Census data, this paper examines whether access to native networks, as measured by marriage to a native, increases the probability of immigrant employment. We start by confirming in both least squares and instrumental variables frameworks that marriage to a native indeed increases immigrant employment rates. Next, we show that the returns to marrying a native are not likely to arise solely from citizenship rights acquired through marriage or characteristics of native spouses. We then present several pieces of evidence suggesting that networks obtained through marriage play an important part in explaining the relationship between marriage decisions and employment.
    Keywords: Immigration, Marriage, Employment, Networks
    Date: 2009–08
  5. By: Stichnoth, Holger
    Abstract: I propose two new tests of Falk and Knell's (2004)prediction that individuals'reference income increases with ability. To overcome the difficulty that the reference income is not observed in existing large data sets, I extend Falk and Knell's model to establish a link between immigrants' reference income and their return visits to their countries of origin. I derive the (arguably counter-intuitive) predictions that more educated immigrants are less likely to have returned to their country of origin for a visit, and that they are more likely to have difficulty feeling at home when they do return for a visit. Both predictions are confirmed on four waves of data from the German Socio-Economic Panel. The estimated marginal effects are statistically significant, but rather small in size.
    Keywords: reference standard,social comparison,immigration,Germany
    JEL: D62 D63 H31 Z13
    Date: 2009
  6. By: Xing, Chunbing
    Abstract: As massive rural residents leave their home countryside for better employment, migration has profound effects on income distributions such as rural-urban income gap and inequalities within rural or urban areas. The nature of the effects depend crucially on who are migrating and their migrating patterns. In this paper, we emphasize two facts. First, rural residents are not homogeneous, they self-select to migrate or not. Second, there are significant differences between migrants who successfully transformed their hukou status (permanent migrants) and those did not (temporary migrants). Using three coordinated CHIP data sets in 2002, we find that permanent migrants are positively selected from rural population especially in terms of education. As permanent migration takes more mass from the upper half of rural income density, both rural income level and inequalities decrease, the urban-rural income ratio increases at the same time. On the contrary, the selection effect of temporary migrants is almost negligible. It does not have obvious effect on rural income level and inequalities.
    Keywords: migration; self-selection; China
    JEL: O15
    Date: 2009–06
  7. By: Jason Gagnon; Theodora Xenogiani; Chunbing Xing
    Abstract: The rapid and massive increase in rural-to-urban worker flows to the coast of China has drawn recent attention to the welfare of migrants working in urban regions, particularly to their working conditions and pay; serious concern is raised regarding pay discrimination against rural migrants. This paper uses data from a random draw of the 2005 Chinese national census survey to shed more light on the discrimination issue, by making comparisons of earnings and the sector of work between rural migrants on one hand, and urban residents and urban migrants on the other. Contrary to popular belief, we find no earnings discrimination against rural migrants compared to urban residents. However, rural migrants are found to be discriminated in terms of the sector in which they work, with a vast majority working in the informal sector lacking adequate social protection.<BR>L’augmentation rapide et massive des mouvements ruraux-à-urbains d’ouvriers vers la côte de la Chine a appelé à l’attention récente le bien-être des migrants travaillant dans des régions urbaines, en particulier vis-à-vis de leurs conditions de travail et de salaire ; la préoccupation a d’autant plus augmenté concernant la discrimination de salaire contre les migrants ruraux. Ce document emploie des données d’un tirage aléatoire du recensement national chinois de 2005 pour éclaircir la question de la discrimination en faisant des comparaisons de revenus et de secteur de travail entre les migrants ruraux d’une part, et les résidents et migrants urbains de l’autre. Contrairement à la croyance populaire, nous ne trouvons aucune discrimination de revenus entre migrants ruraux et résidents urbains. Cependant, les migrants ruraux s’avèrent être distingués en termes de secteur dans lequel ils travaillent, une grande majorité d’entre eux travaillant dans le secteur informel, caractérisé par un manque d’accès à une protection sociale adéquate.
    Keywords: migration, China, Chine, informal employment, migration, emploi informel, discrimination, discrimination
    JEL: J24 J71 O15 R23
    Date: 2009–06–30
  8. By: Pamina Koenig
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of immigrants' networks on the decision of individual firms to starting exporting to the immigrants' home country. Existing evidence on the trade-creating effect of immigrants show a robust effect, however at the national or regional level. Using French exports at the firm-level to 61 countries, I find that increasing the number of foreign immigrants in the region by 10 % increases the probability that a firm starts exporting to the immigrants' home country by 1.2%. More, the effect of immigrants is enhanced when immigrants are older or more educated. The effect of immigrants also varies among origin countries.
    Date: 2009
  9. By: Stark, Oded
    Abstract: This paper presents a set of reflections on what gives rise to remittances, which constitute a major part of the impact of migration on economic development in the migrantsâ own countries. The collage of reasons presented serves to illustrate that remittance behavior is the outcome of an intricate interplay between the preferences and interests of migrants and their families.
    Keywords: Reasons for remitting, Consumer/Household Economics, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, D31, F22, F24, J61, O12, O15,
    Date: 2009–08
  10. By: Stichnoth, Holger; Straeten, Karine Van der
    Abstract: We review the empirical literature that studies the effect of ethnic diversity on the welfare state and on individual attitudes. The outcome variables that we cover in the survey are on the one hand public spending, and on the other hand individual attitudes and behaviour, including charity spending. We also review the fast-growing literature that uses experiments to study the effects of ethnic diversity. Many of these studies have appeared since the pioneering survey by Alesina and La Ferrara (2005a), and have not been covered by a survey before.
    Keywords: redistribution,social security,welfare state,immigration,ethnic diversity,survey
    JEL: H53 H55 I38 J15 J61
    Date: 2009

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