nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2009‒08‒22
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Does Racism Affect a Migrant's Choice of Destination? By Henry, Ruby
  2. Immigrant Self-Employment: Does Intermarriage Matter? By Georgarakos, Dimitris; Tatsiramos, Konstantinos
  3. Complements or Substitutes? Task Specialization by Gender and Nativity in Spain By Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; de la Rica, Sara
  4. Deciding Who Works Where – An Analysis of the Distribution of Work within Native and Immigrant Families in Australia By Leilanie Basilio
  5. Perceptions and Labor Market Outcomes of Immigrants in Australia after 9/11 By Goel, Deepti
  6. The New Mexican-Americans: International Retirement Migration and Development in an Expatriate Community in Mexico By Thomas W. Methvin
  7. Identifying the key issues focusing on the costs and benefits of immigration in developed countries By Dobra, Alexandra

  1. By: Henry, Ruby (Toulouse School of Economics)
    Abstract: I explicitly introduce racial conflict and cultural attitudes on racial diversity as determinants of destination choice to test their continued relevance to African Americans. I construct several measures of racial intolerance towards African Americans using hate crime activity and the feelings of white Americans about race extracted from a national social attitudes survey. Recognizing that African American migration may actually spawn hate crimes against them, I use a control function method with assaults on white police officers and hate crimes against Jews as instruments to correct for potential endogeneity. The results show that the probability of African American migrants choosing a city is significantly reduced by per capita hate crimes against them, the level of race-based crimes against them, by racially intolerant attitudes held by whites, and by poor evolution in whites' feelings about racial diversity − all regardless of the region in which a city is located. Also striking is the previously undocumented divide among African Americans with respect to region, after controlling for racial intolerance. Those starting in the North exhibit an extreme distaste for the South at the margin, which contrasts sharply to the extreme taste for the South displayed by African Americans originating in the South.
    Keywords: racial violence, discrimination, migration, conditional logit
    JEL: J15 J61 R23 C25
    Date: 2009–08
  2. By: Georgarakos, Dimitris (Goethe University Frankfurt); Tatsiramos, Konstantinos (IZA)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of a native spouse on the transitions into and out of entrepreneurship of male immigrants in the U.S. We find that those married to a native are less likely to start up a business compared to those married to an immigrant. This finding is robust when the endogeneity of being married to a native is taken into account. We also show that immigrants married to a native are significantly less likely to exit from entrepreneurship compared to their counterparts who are married to an immigrant. Our results point to an interesting asymmetric role of being intermarried in deciding to become an entrepreneur and for survival in entrepreneurship, which is consistent with a network effect. On the one hand, intermarriage reduces the chance of starting up a business possibly because better access to local networks can help transitions into other forms of employment (e.g. paid employment). On the other hand, superior access to local networks through marriage to a native spouse facilitates business survival.
    Keywords: business ownership, migration, native spouse, social networks
    JEL: J12 J15 J61
    Date: 2009–08
  3. By: Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina (San Diego State University, California); de la Rica, Sara (University of the Basque Country)
    Abstract: Learning about the impact of immigration on the labor market outcomes of natives is a topic of major concern for immigrant-receiving countries. There exists an extensive literature evaluating the impact of immigration on the employment and wages of natives in the U.S. Yet, despite the significant degree of occupational segregation by gender regardless of workers' origin, the literature has traditionally treated male and female immigrants as a homogenous group when examining the impact of immigration on native workers. Instead, using data from Spain, where the immigrant population has risen from 4 percent to 10 percent of the population within a decade, we allow for male and female foreign-born workers to have distinct impacts on the employment patterns of native men and women. This proves to be important as foreign-born workers only seem to have a significant impact on the employment pattern of native workers of the same sex. Furthermore, foreign-born male (female) workers do not appear to be perfect substitutes of similarly skilled native male (female) workers, which may help explain the null or small impacts of immigration on native employment and wages. Instead, immigration appears to have affected the task specialization and occupational distribution of natives of the same gender.
    Keywords: immigration, gender, task specialization, complements, substitutes, Spain
    JEL: F22 J61 J31 R13
    Date: 2009–08
  4. By: Leilanie Basilio
    Abstract: The paper examines whether there is an asymmetry in the distribution of market work and domestic work within families in Australia, and to what extent differences in earnings capacities of spouses can account for the division of labor. Using a Blinder-Oaxaca Tobit-type decomposition, we find that the difference in earnings capacities of Australian couples could explain about 30 and 20 percent of the observed disparities in spousal time allocation in market and domestic work, respectively. Most of the work gaps, however, appear to be accounted for by the differences in labor supply behaviors of partners rather than by the differences in earnings capacities.We further observe that the differences in wages are more relevant for immigrant families originating from non-English speaking countries.Convergence of gender wages would produce the greatest reduction in spousal specialization for this particular group.Given that immigrant women from non-English speaking background have high levels of formal qualifications, our results could assert the significance of improving the returns to human capital attributes of these immigrant women in reducing the imbalance in spousal work distribution.
    Keywords: Household time allocation, housework, gender effects
    JEL: J22 D13 J16
    Date: 2009–07
  5. By: Goel, Deepti (Institute for Financial Management and Research (IFMR))
    Abstract: I examine whether after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 Muslim immigrants and immigrants who fit the Muslim Arab stereotype in Australia perceive a greater increase in religious and racial intolerance and discrimination compared to other immigrant groups. I also examine whether there is a differential change in their labor market outcomes. I find that after 9/11 there is a greater increase in the likelihood of Muslim men and of those who look like Muslims to report a lot of religious and racial intolerance and discrimination relative to other immigrants. Further, I do not find evidence that after 9/11 Muslims or their stereotypes show a differential change in the likelihood of looking for a new main job or of being employed. There is also no evidence of a differential change in hours worked or in wage incomes. This suggests that the Australian labor market did not react to attitudinal changes in society, at least in the immediate aftermath of 9/11.
    Keywords: discrimination, immigrants, September 2001, 9/11
    JEL: J61 J71
    Date: 2009–08
  6. By: Thomas W. Methvin (Princeton University)
    Abstract: If you did a Google search right now on the subject of U.S.-Mexico immigration, you would probably find thousands of resources, documents, and web-pages all dealing with what is often referred to as the immigration problem. The question is generally consistent across many fronts: how to deal with the millions of undocumented Mexican immigrants from Mexico who are seeking a better life in the U.S.? While this kind of immigration between the U.S. and Mexico certainly is important, it is not the only kind of migration between the two countries. While much of what may be deemed dominant migration theory details the migration experiences primarily of so-called labor migrants and South-North migrations between areas of lesser development to more developed regions, important exceptions exist and are notably understudied.
    Date: 2009–05
  7. By: Dobra, Alexandra
    Abstract: The present paper aims to acquaint concisely about the main issues surrounding the theme immigration, founded in the literature. This acquaintance is ensured through first (comprising the third part of the corpus), an overall focus on the question of assessing, on the one hand the benefits and on the other hand the costs of immigration, through the exploitation of many theories and arguments – especially concentrated on the economic and fiscal aspects - each being illustrated with specific examples of various developed countries – thus giving a frame for intra and inter-continental comparisons and analysis. Second (comprising the second part of the corpus), this acquaintance is ensured through proceeding to the evaluation and comparison between costs and benefits – by presenting new arguments, more focused on the social and political aspects - in order to seize objectively whether costs overweight benefits or whether not.
    Keywords: Immigration; Costs; Benefits; Country of Immigration; Developed Countries; Issues; Consequences; Comparison.
    JEL: O15 Y80
    Date: 2009–05

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