nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2009‒08‒16
thirteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Long-Term Effects of Forced Migration By Markus Jäntti; Matti Sarvimäki; Roope Uusitalo
  2. Immigration and Housing Booms: Evidence from Spain By Libertad González Luna; Francesc Ortega
  3. Diaspora Externalities as a Cornerstone of the New Brain Drain Literature By Elisabetta Lodigiani
  4. Internal Migration. Challenges and Perspectives for the Research Infrastructure By Andreas Farwick
  5. Entrepreneurship of young migrants across Mediterranean borders By L. Mengoni
  6. One Nation Under a Groove? Identity and Multiculturalism in Britain By Andreas Georgiadis; Alan Manning
  7. Circular Migration or Permanent Return: What Determines Different Forms of Migration? By Florin P. Vadean; Matloob Piracha
  8. Influence Of Labour Migration On Latvia’s Labour Market By Skribans, Valerijs
  9. The Trade Creation Effect of Immigrants: Testing the Theory on the Remarkable case of Spain By Giovanni Peri; Francisco Requena
  10. International Migration, Remittances and Labour Supply: The Case of the Republic of Haiti By Jadotte, Evans
  11. Occupational Transition and Country-of-Origin Effects in the Early Stage Occupational Assimilation of Immigrants: Some Evidence from Australia By Weiping Kostenko; Mark Harris; Xueyan Zhao
  12. Does Labour Market Achievement Matter for the Wellbeing of Australian Immigrants? Culture and Gender Differences By Weiping Kostenko
  13. Migration and Statistics By Sonja Haug

  1. By: Markus Jäntti; Matti Sarvimäki; Roope Uusitalo
    Abstract: We study the long-term effects of human displacement using individual level panel data onforced migrants and comparable non-migrants. After World War II, Finland ceded a tenth ofits territory to the Soviet Union and resettled the entire population living in these areas in theremaining parts of the country. We find that displacement increased the long-term income ofmen, but had no effect on that of women. We attribute a large part of the effect to fastertransition from traditional (rural) to modern (urban) occupations among the displaced.
    Keywords: Migration, displaced persons, regional labor markets
    JEL: J60 O15 R23
    Date: 2009–03
  2. By: Libertad González Luna; Francesc Ortega
    Abstract: We estimate empirically the effect of immigration on house prices and residential construction activity in Spain over the period 1998-2008. This decade is characterized by both a spectacular housing market boom and a stunning immigration wave. We exploit the variation in immigration across Spanish provinces and construct an instrument based on the historical location patterns of immigrants by country of origin. The evidence points to a sizeable causal effect of immigration on both prices and quantities in the housing market. Between 1998 and 2008, the average Spanish province received an immigrant inflow equal to 17% of the initial working-age population. We estimate that this inflow increased house prices by about 52% and is responsible for 37% of the total construction of new housing units during the period. These figures imply that immigration can account for roughly one third of the housing boom, both in terms of prices and new construction.
    Keywords: Housing market, immigration, house prices, construction, Spain
    JEL: F22 J61 R21 R23 R31
    Date: 2009–07
  3. By: Elisabetta Lodigiani (CREA, University of Luxembourg and Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano)
    Abstract: The pace of international skilled migration has accelerated during recent decades and it has attracted considerable attention across scholars and politicians. This paper gives a general and critical idea of the brain drain issue. It provides stylized facts on the magnitude and skill composition of migration and explores the main findings on brain drain. Then it focuses on diaspora networks and on the major channels whereby they foster economic development in source countries. Some policy implications and general conclusion for future research are also given in the last part of the work.
    Keywords: brain drain, migration, diaspora
    JEL: F2 O15 Z13
    Date: 2009–07–31
  4. By: Andreas Farwick
    Abstract: Research on internal migration covers a wide range of issues with regard to the reasons, distance and direction of moves as well as the process of decision-making. Given the rich field of relevant research objectives and the substantial developments in migration theory it is apparent that the availability of a broad set of data including detailed information on various aspects of life is one of the key factors for ongoing progress in the analysis of internal migration development. Available official aggregated data are useful for descriptive structural analyses. But they are very limited in explaining causal relations. The same holds for cross-sectional data. Some of the described longitudinal data sets consist of retrospective collected event history data that are not suitable for collecting essential information about attitudes and psychological states of the respondents over time. Several prospective longitudinal survey data do not represent essential aspects of internal migration. Data should at least include information on the place of residence (on the smallest possible spatial level), typologies about the characteristics of the place of residence, change of residence, reasons of a move, intentions to move, the dwelling and the neighbourhood as well as on commuting.
    Keywords: internal migration, regional migration, migration theory, official data, cross-sectional data, longitudinal data.
    Date: 2009
  5. By: L. Mengoni
    Date: 2009–08
  6. By: Andreas Georgiadis; Alan Manning
    Abstract: There is a lot of evidence that identity matters for behavior. There is a widespread belief that societies will function better if they manage to establish a common sense of identity among the population. And there are also contemporary fears that this common identity is threatened in several countries. In this paper we investigate the correlates of various measures of identity in the UK, a country currently greatly concerned about a perceived failure to build a common identity from a collection of diverse cultures. We find that the alleged failure to establish a British identity among ethnic minorities is exaggerated - for most their ethnicity and religion seem no barrier to a British identity. But there is a segment of the white population that clearly feels neglected and alienated, and are hostile to the multicultural agenda.
    Keywords: Identity, Multiculturalism
    JEL: D71 Z13
    Date: 2009–07
  7. By: Florin P. Vadean; Matloob Piracha
    Abstract: This paper addresses the following questions: To what extent do the socio-economic characteristics of circular/repeat migrants differ from migrants who return permanently to the home country after their first trip (i.e. return migrants) and what determines each of these distinctive temporary migration forms? Using Albanian household survey data we find that education, gender, age, geographical location and the return reasons from the first migration trip significantly affect the choice of migration form. Compared to return migrants, circular migrants are more likely to be male, have primary education and originate from rural, less developed areas. Moreover, return migration seems to be determined by family reasons, a failed migration attempt but also the fulfilment of a savings target.
    Keywords: return migration; circular migration; sample selection
    JEL: C35 F22 J61
    Date: 2009–08
  8. By: Skribans, Valerijs
    Abstract: This paper shows system dynamic model of labour market and labour migration in Latvia. The hypothesis of the research is: labour migration is determined primarily by the payment level in the countries under consideration and the indicator derived from it – payment differences in the countries compared; as well as employment level, unemployment level, number of work places (market capacity) and number of vacant work places. Secondary factors influencing migration may be costs connected with labour migration, formal legal barriers to migration and personal propensity to migrate. Statistics on the labour market in Latvia are not complete; there is also no common view of experts on determinant processes. In such circumstances market forecasting with quantitative methods is problematic. One approach is to simulate indicators and to estimate their influence on national economy. The model has three parts: growth (expansion) of labour force, division and migration sub models. The sub model for growth of labour force is based on division of population in various categories during transition to a working age population. Division by level of education is further used in labour market analysis in which worker groups are formed according to the education level. The paper represents mutual interaction of groups of workers as well as labour migration. The results show sensitivity of the model factors to propensity of personnel for labour migration.
    Keywords: system dynamic; labour migration; labour market; salary level
    JEL: F15 D0 F16 O1 C0 J0
    Date: 2009
  9. By: Giovanni Peri (UC Davis, NBER and Centro Studi Luca d’Agliano); Francisco Requena (University of Valencia)
    Abstract: There is abundant evidence that immigrants’ networks are associated with larger trade flows between countries of origin and the country (or province) where they settle. The causality of such relation and its magnitude, however, have not been proven beyond reasonable doubt. We use the simple predictions of the model by Chaney (2008) and treat networks of migrants as a device that reduces fixed bilateral trade costs. In so doing we have strong predictions on the effect of immigrants on total exports, exports by category of goods, and on the extensive and intensive margin of trade. We test these predictions using the remarkable and uneven increase of immigration to Spanish provinces between 1993 and 2008. The richness of our data, a panel of import and export by sector between 50 Spanish provinces and 77 countries over fifteen years, allows us to control for a very large set of covariates and fixed effects and to use an instrumental variable strategy so that we can isolate the trade-creation effect of new immigrants. We are also able to qualify the effect of immigration on bilateral trade of homogeneous and differentiated goods, and its impact on the intensive and extensive margin of trade. Our findings support all the implications of the Chaney model showing that migration network indeed seems to decrease the fixed costs of trade. Finally by decomposing the effect across provinces and over time we find evidence that the elasticity of trade creation to new immigrant is larger once a critical mass has been reached.
    Keywords: Immigration, International Trade, Intensive and Extensive margin, Differentiated Goods
    JEL: F10 F14 R12
    Date: 2009–07–31
  10. By: Jadotte, Evans
    Abstract: The Republic of Haiti is a prime international remittance recipient country in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region, relative to its gross domestic product (GDP). The downside of this fact may be that Haiti, based on population size, is also the largest exporter of skilled workers in the world. The present research uses a zero-altered negative binomial (with logit inflation) to model the international migration decision process of households, and endogenous regressors. Amemiya generalized least squares method (instrumental variable Tobit, IV-Tobit) to account for selectivity and endogeneity issues to assess the impact of remittances on labour market outcomes. The results in terms of a decline of labour supply in the presence of remittances are in line with those observed thus far in the literature. However, the impact of international remittances does not seem to be important in determining the labour participation behaviour, particularly for
    Keywords: Republic of Haiti, international migration, remittances, labour supply
    Date: 2009
  11. By: Weiping Kostenko (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Mark Harris (Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics, Monash University); Xueyan Zhao (Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics, Monash University)
    Abstract: We examine the occupational attainment of recent immigrants at two years post migration in order to study their early stage assimilation into the labour market in Australia. Human capital endowments and country-of-origin effects are examined for six occupational groups (including unemployment). We also study transitions across occupations from source to host country. The empirical approach utilises the Ordered Generalised Extreme Value model which embodies differing utility functions across occupational outcomes, as well as accounting for any ordering in these outcomes. The results suggest that the transferability of knowledge and skills is affected by cultural and social backgrounds, and that non-Western immigrants are disproportionately channelled into inferior jobs post migration. The investigation of the country-of-origin effect on the skilled migrants' occupational transition process is especially apt in the context of skill shortages in many host countries.
    Keywords: Immigrant, occupational assimilation, ordered discrete data, ordered generalised extreme value model, labour market outcomes
    JEL: J24 J61
    Date: 2009–07
  12. By: Weiping Kostenko (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: This study explores the Australian immigrants' job-life relationship by simultaneously estimating a bivariate ordered probit random effects panel model. We found that discrepancy between career goal and employment reality plays a central role. The study also explores the characteristics related to immigrants who are likely to have stronger job concerns. Non-western male immigrants are among them. They are more disadvantaged in the labour market and have lower life satisfaction compared to their Western counterparts, while these situations improve with duration in Australia. Also, immigration age is found crucial for this adjustment process. For female immigrants, the results suggest that the well-educated female migrants' subjective wellbeing is impeded by struggling over work-family balance.
    Keywords: Immigrant, wellbeing, labour market outcomes, endogeneity, bivariate ordered probit random effects panel model
    JEL: J24 J61
    Date: 2009–07
  13. By: Sonja Haug
    Abstract: The field of empirical migration and integration research is characterised by a wide range of research questions, theoretical approaches and data sets. Research based on official statistics has to deal with different data sets on migration and foreign population resulting in different numbers. Developments in official statistics concentrate on the improvement of data quality. The census 2010/2011 or the projected central population register are important issues, e.g. in respect of sampling and weighting of migrants in surveys. The concept of migration background in the microcensus is a mayor enhancement in population statistics and has become widely accepted. It is recommended to implement questions on migration background in the census 2010/2011 too. The most important accessible data sets in the field of empirical integration research are the microcensus and the German Socio-Economic Panel; there is still untapped potential for analysis in this area. The supplementation of large surveys with a migrant sample is an appreciated trend. Most important challenges for empirical migration and integration research are the development of sampling methods for migrant population (including onomastics and topomastics), studies on new and small migrant groups, research projects in the country of origin, longitudinal migrant surveys and the development of measurement instruments.
    Keywords: Population, Migration, Integration, Migration Background
    Date: 2009

This nep-mig issue is ©2009 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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