nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2009‒08‒08
fifteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. The role of geographic mobility in reducing education-job mismatches in the Netherlands By Hensen Maud M.; Vries M. Robert de; Cörvers Frank
  2. How ya gonna keep ‘em down on the farm: Which Land Grant graduates live in rural areas? By Artz, Georgeanne M.; Yu, Li
  3. Migration and Rural Entrepreneurship By Yu, Li; Artz, Georgeanne M.
  4. Rural to Urban Migration as a Household Decision: Experimental Evidences from the Mekong Delta, Vietnam By Huynh Truong Huy
  5. Immigration and Housing Booms: Evidence from Spain By Gonzalez, Libertad; Ortega, Francesc
  6. A Human Development Index by Internal Migrational Status By Kenneth Harttgen; Stephan Klasen
  7. Skilled Immigration and Wages in Australia* By Asadul Islam; Dietrich K. Fausten
  8. Trade, Aid, Remittances and Migration By Sule Akkoyunlu
  9. Remittances to Latin America from Migrants in the United States: Assessing the Impact of Amnesty Programs By Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Mazzolari, Francesca
  10. Pakistani Migration to the United States:An Economic Perspective By Oda, Hisaya
  11. Understanding the Workweek of Foreign Born Workers in the United States By Lozano, Fernando A.
  12. High-Tech Immigrant Entrepreneurship in the U.S. By David M. Hart; Zoltan J. Acs; Spencer Tracy
  13. Cyclical Dimensions of Labour Mobility after EU Enlargement By Alan Ahearne; Herbert Brcker; Zsolt Darvas; Jakob von Weizs„cker
  14. Does labour mobility reduce disparities between regional labour markets in Germany? By Niebuhr, Annekatrin; Granato, Nadia; Haas, Anette; Hamann, Silke
  15. Perfil do Migrante Brasileiro By Adolfo Sachsida; Paulo Furtado de Castro; Mario Jorge Cardoso de Mendonça; Pedro H. Albuquerque

  1. By: Hensen Maud M.; Vries M. Robert de; Cörvers Frank (ROA rm)
    Abstract: In this article we investigate the relationship between geographic mobility andeducation-job mismatch in the Netherlands. We focus on the role of geographicmobility in reducing the probability of graduates working (i) jobs below theireducation level; (ii) jobs outside their study fi eld; (iii) part-time jobs; (iv) fl exiblejobs; or (v) jobs paid below the wage expected at the beginning of the career. For thispurpose we use data on secondary and higher vocational education graduates in theperiod 1996–2001. We show that graduates who are mobile have higher probabilityof fi nding jobs at the acquired education level than those who are not. Moreover,mobile graduates have higher probability of fi nding full-time or permanent jobs.Th is suggests that mobility is sought to prevent not only having to take a job belowthe acquired education level, but also other education-job mismatches; graduates arespatially fl exible particularly to ensure full-time jobs.
    Keywords: education, training and the labour market;
    Date: 2009
  2. By: Artz, Georgeanne M.; Yu, Li
    Abstract: Out-migration of college-educated youth from rural areas of the United States is a persistent trend and a salient concern for rural development practitioners. Using a unique dataset compiled from a survey of alumni graduating from a major Midwestern Land Grant University between 1982 and 2006, we address four policy relevant questions pertaining to rural brain drain: which college graduates choose to live in rural areas, how do rural alumni’s career goals differ from those of urban alumni, how do occupation and income differ across these groups and is interest in rural living increasing or decreasing over time? We find strong evidence of brain drain from rural areas roughly 75 percent of rural born alumni lived in urban areas at the time of survey. Rural alumni tend to be rural born, have majors in the College of Agriculture and work or start business in the agriculture-related industries.
    Date: 2009–07–27
  3. By: Yu, Li; Artz, Georgeanne M.
    Abstract: This paper investigates entrepreneurship of migrants and their location choice in attempt to draw connections between migration and economic development, especially the role of business formation in rural development. Rural entrepreneurship is firstly attempted to be better understood form perspectives of individual people’s migration, human capital, social capital and family background. The study uses a recent survey on alumni of Iowa State University. We find that social capital and social networks established in one’s home region are shown to be a strong factor in location choice of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs from rural origins tend to choose to start their businesses in rural areas in general and half of entrepreneurs migrate back to their home in particular to take local comparative advantages. Rural entrepreneurs are also more likely to obtain financial support from family members, friends and local banks to start a business.
    Date: 2009–07–27
  4. By: Huynh Truong Huy (Center for Migration and Intercultural Studies, Antwerpen University, Belgium)
    Abstract: <p>This paper reports the results of a survey from 148 households in the Mekong Delta regarding the household's decision of migration. Recent studies of migration indicated that a decision of migration for a certain person is not made individually by himself, but it is often made with impacts from other members in family. The logistic regression model is applied in this paper to examine the determinants of decision of migration to both migration and non-migration households.</p><p>According to the descriptive measure, it is found that the decision of migration for a typical household is significantly associated with the factors, namely "push" and "pull" factors. Among those are lack of job and low wages in home village, landless, job opportunities, higher wages and links to relatives from urban areas. Furthermore, the result of the estimated model displays the household's migration decision is strongly positively associated with household size, housing status, landless, but negative to number of dependants, plot size and income from non-farming activity.</p>
    Keywords: Vietnam, Rural, Urban, Migration, Mekong Delta, household
    Date: 2009
  5. By: Gonzalez, Libertad (Universitat Pompeu Fabra); Ortega, Francesc (Universitat Pompeu Fabra)
    Abstract: We estimate empirically the effect of immigration on house prices and residential construction activity in Spain over the period 1998-2008. This decade is characterized by both a spectacular housing market boom and a stunning immigration wave. We exploit the variation in immigration across Spanish provinces and construct an instrument based on the historical location patterns of immigrants by country of origin. The evidence points to a sizeable causal effect of immigration on both prices and quantities in the housing market. Between 1998 and 2008, the average Spanish province received an immigrant inflow equal to 17% of the initial working-age population. We estimate that this inflow increased house prices by about 52% and is responsible for 37% of the total construction of new housing units during the period. These figures imply that immigration can account for roughly one third of the housing boom, both in terms of prices and new construction.
    Keywords: housing market, immigration, house prices, construction, Spain
    JEL: F22 J61 R21 R23 R31
    Date: 2009–07
  6. By: Kenneth Harttgen; Stephan Klasen
    Abstract: Migration continues to be a very important income diversi¯cation strategy, es- pecially for poor populations in developing countries. However, while there has been much analysis on the economic consequences of migration for migrants and the receiving regions, whether internal migration improves or deteriorates human development is not easy to determine. This papers applies a recently de- velopment analytical framework that allows to calculate the HDI for subgroups of a population. We use this approach to calculate the HDI by internal migra- tional status to assess the di®erences between the levels of human development of internal migrants compared to non-migrants, and also across countries as well as by urban and rural areas. An empirical illustration for a sample of 16 low and middle income countries shows that, overall, internal migrants slightly achieve a higher level of human development than non-migrants. The results further show that di®erences in income between migrants and non-migrants are generally higher than di®erences in education and life-expectancy. Disag- gregating the analysis by urban and rural areas reveals that urban internal migrants are better o® than urban non-migrants and rural migrants are better o® than rural non-migrants.
    Keywords: Human Development; Migration Income Inequality; Differential Mortality; Inequality in Education
    Date: 2009–07–15
  7. By: Asadul Islam; Dietrich K. Fausten
    Abstract: This paper addresses the implications of the increasing skill intensity of cross-border migration flows for labour market outcomes in host countries. Specifically, we investigate the impact of the relative growth of skilled migrants on domestic wages in Australia over the last quarter century (1980-2006). We use instrumental variable (IV) estimation techniques to deal with the potential endogeneity of immigration. Unlike most of the previous literature, we use macro data to allow for the adjustment of wages and aggregate demand to immigration flows. However, the limited time span of such data raises problems of small sample bias. We address the small sample bias problem by using Jackknife IV estimation. Our basic finding challenges popular presumptions about the adverse wage implications of immigration. However, our examination of the skill composition of migration flows supports the many prevailing empirical findings that immigration need not cause labour market outcomes to deteriorate. Specifically, we do not find any robust evidence that a relative increase in arrivals of skilled immigrants exerts discernible adverse consequences on wages in Australia.
    Keywords: Immigration, wage, endogeneity, instrumental variable.
    JEL: J61 J31 C31 C59
    Date: 2009–08
  8. By: Sule Akkoyunlu (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: I investigated whether migration is interrelated with trade, aid and remittances so that any policies that consider trade, aid and remittances also affect the decision to migrate. We developed and estimated an empirical model of Turkish migration to Germany and tested the model for the 1969-2004, using the cointegration technique. A single cointegrating vector is found among the gross migration inflows and the following explanatory variables: the relative income ratio between Germany and Turkey, the unemployment rates in Germany and Turkey, aid, the trade intensity variable and the ratio of manufacturing exports with Germany to total exports with Germany and remittances as a ratio of Turkish GDP. The results of this study show that migration, trade, aid and remittances are interrelated, however, migration will be better managed when the dynamic gains from trade and aid are considered. Hence, the broad-based and rapid economic development with increase in income is the only effective means of reducing migration pressures in a labour-surplus country. This is mainly because the income differential is the most significant factor in determining migration flows.
    Keywords: Trade, Aid, Remittances, Migration, Cointegration
    JEL: C22 F16 F22 F24 F35
    Date: 2009–06
  9. By: Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina (San Diego State University, California); Mazzolari, Francesca (University of California, Irvine)
    Abstract: The magnitude of remittance flows to Latin America exceeds the combined inflows of foreign direct investment and official development assistance to the region. Since the United States is the destination country of the vast majority of migrants from Mexico, as well as from other Latin American countries, U.S. immigration policy can have a significant impact on the volume of remittances to the Latin American region. This paper studies how a generalized amnesty – a provision in the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), affected immigrants' remitting patterns. In models that control for immigrants' length of residence in the United States and for economic conditions in both the U.S. state of residence and the country of origin, we estimate substantial post-legalization drops in remittances sent home by Mexican-born migrants who legalized through IRCA. Given the potential positive impact of remittances on investment levels, entrepreneurship rates and the development of the financial sector, this finding underscores the importance of gaining a better understanding of the impact that immigration policies in immigrant-receiving countries may have on the stream of remittance flows to immigrant-sending communities in developing regions.
    Keywords: remittances, Latin American migrants, legal status, amnesty
    JEL: F24 O15
    Date: 2009–07
  10. By: Oda, Hisaya
    Abstract: The 9-11 attack on the US brought a set of changes in overseas migration from Pakistan. One such change is the sharp increase in remittances sent from the United States. The paper argues that the characteristics of remittances from the United States differ from those originating in the Middle East. Just as the overseas Pakistani communities are diversified, the nature and characteristics of remittances are heterogeneous, depending on where they come from and who sends them. While the importance of remittance flows from the United States is rising, not much academic attention has been paid to this issue because of a lack of data. To better understand the reasons behind the increase in US remittances, and in order to evaluate their sustainability, household surveys are necessary.
    Keywords: Labor migration, Remittances, Pakistan, United States, Emigrant remittances, Migration, Migrant labor
    JEL: J61 O15 O53
    Date: 2009–03
  11. By: Lozano, Fernando A. (Pomona College)
    Abstract: I analyze the length of the workweek of foreign-born workers in the U.S. I concentrate on workers supplying long hours of work − 50 or more weekly hours and document that immigrants are less likely than natives to work long hours. Surprisingly, these differences are greatest among highly educated and salary paid workers, and persists even after conditioning for demographic characteristics. I explain these differences with two within occupation characteristics. First, relative to natives, immigrants are less likely to supply long work weeks if they work in occupations where the immigrant-native earnings differential is big. Second, immigrants are also less likely to supply long work weeks when they work in occupations with a wide dispersion of earnings. This second result is important, because the occupation dispersion of earnings has been used to characterize changes of the worker's earnings over the worker life cycle (Bell and Freeman, 2001; Kuhn and Lozano, 2008), and a good measure of the incentives to supply long hours of work.
    Keywords: immigrants, hours of work
    JEL: J22 J61
    Date: 2009–07
  12. By: David M. Hart (School of Public Policy, George Mason University); Zoltan J. Acs (School of Public Policy, George Mason University and Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena); Spencer Tracy (Corporate Research Board)
    Abstract: In this study, we quantify the role of foreign-born founders in high-tech entrepreneurship in a nationally representative sample of rapidly growing "high-impact" companies. This class of companies drives job creation and aggregate growth in the U.S. We find that, while most previous studies have overstated this role, it is nonetheless very important. For instance, about 16% of the companies in our sample had at least one foreign-born person among their founding teams, and these high-tech companies display better performance in some respects than high-tech companies in our sample whose founders were all native-born. We also provide a profile of high-tech immigrant entrepreneurs. The vast majority are strongly rooted in the U.S., highlighting the need to build a coherent pathway to permanent status for highly-skilled immigrants.
    Keywords: Immigrant entrepreneurs, High Tech, High Impact Firms, Entrepreneurship
    JEL: L26 O3 F2
    Date: 2009–08–06
  13. By: Alan Ahearne (Department of Economics-National University of Ireland, Bruegel-Brussels, Trinity College Dublin); Herbert Brcker (Head of the Department for International Comparisons and European Integration, Institute for Employment Research, University of Bamberg); Zsolt Darvas (Institute of Economics - Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bruegel-Brussels, Corvinus University of Budapest); Jakob von Weizs„cker (Bruegel, Brussels)
    Abstract: This paper explores the influence of the economic cycle on labour mobility within the EU, focusing on the likely impact of the present economic crisis. To do so, we use an econometrically calibrated simulation and a case study of Ireland. We find that, in the short run, the crisis is likely to lead to a somewhat lower stock of migrants from the new member states in the EU15 than would have been the case without the crisis on account of diminished job opportunities for migrants. By contrast, in the longer run the crisis might lead to a moderate increase in migration from some of the new member states compared to what would have been the case without the crisis. The latter is driven by the observation that the crisis may have undermined the economic growth model of some of the new member states, thereby slowing down their economic catching-up process.
    Keywords: labour mobility; economic cycle; crisis; European Union
    JEL: F22 C33 J61 O11 O15 O24
    Date: 2009–06
  14. By: Niebuhr, Annekatrin (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Granato, Nadia (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Haas, Anette (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Hamann, Silke (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "Differences in regional labour market conditions are still pronounced in Germany, especially between the Eastern and the Western part. Traditional neoclassical models imply that labour mobility should reduce disparities. In contrast, models that include externalities or selective migration suggest that regional differences might well increase due to interregional migration of workers. We investigate the impact of labour mobility on regional disparities in Germany between 1995 and 2005. Considering the impact of migration as well as commuting, effects on regional wages and unemployment are estimated. Our results suggest that labour mobility tends to reduce disparities; however, we find significant effects only on unemployment dispari-ties." (Autorenreferat, IAB-Doku)
    JEL: C23 J61 R23
    Date: 2009–07–30
  15. By: Adolfo Sachsida; Paulo Furtado de Castro; Mario Jorge Cardoso de Mendonça; Pedro H. Albuquerque
    Abstract: Na introdução deste texto são propostos os objetivos a serem seguidos ao longo do trabalho. Além disso, é feita uma revisão da literatura sobre migração no Brasil. Na seção 2 são apresentadas as estatísticas descritivas referentes ao perfil do migrante brasileiro. Na seção 3 separamos os migrantes de acordo com suas regiões de origem e de destino. Por fim, na seção 4 são apresentadas as conclusões deste estudo. This paper set up some stylized facts related to migration in Brazil. Two important things should be kept in mind: a) the data came from PNAD 2006; and b) the variable migration is defined as an individual that was born in one state but lives in another one. Changes in the definition of the variable migration or in the dataset are able to change the qualitative results. We can summarize our results in the following: 1) young individuals with higher level of education are more prone to migrate; 2) gender and race are important factors related to migration; and 3) distance between regions is a very important variable to explain migration.
    Date: 2009–07

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