nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2009‒04‒18
eleven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Hostility Toward Immigration in Spain By Martínez i Coma, Ferran; Duval Hernández, Robert
  2. Beyond Wages: The Effects of Immigration on the Scale and Composition of Output By Francesca Mazzolari; David Neumark
  3. Migration and Wage-Setting: Reassessing the Labor Market Effects of Migration By Herbert Brücker; Elke J. Jahn
  4. Migration and Wage Inequality. Economic Effects of Migration to and within Sweden, 1993-2003 By Korpi, Martin
  5. Do Immigrants Affect Firm-Specific Wages? By Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Rose Skaksen, Jan
  6. Do Immigrants Take the Jobs of Native Workers? By Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose
  7. Patriotism, Taxation and International Mobility By Qari, Salmai; Konrad, Kai A.; Geys, Benny
  8. Receiving People or Sending Money : Differential Impact of Income Shocks on Migration and Transfers in Senegal By SAFIR Abla
  9. Economic and Cultural Gaps among Foreign-born Minorities in Spain By de la Rica, Sara; Ortega, Francesc
  10. The Urban Hierarchy and Domestic Migration. The Interaction of Internal Migration, Disposable Income and the Cost of Living, Sweden 1993-2002 By Korpi, Martin; Clark, William A.V.; Malmberg, Bo
  11. A portrait of New England's immigrants By Antoniya Owens

  1. By: Martínez i Coma, Ferran (CIDE, Mexico City); Duval Hernández, Robert (CIDE, Mexico City)
    Abstract: This paper provides new evidence regarding public opinion on immigration by studying the Spanish case, and by analyzing not only respondents' preferences regarding immigration levels, but also regarding admittance policies and the rights and benefits to grant to foreigners. In general, Spaniards support less immigration, and more selectivity based on skills and qualifications, but not reduced rights and benefits for immigrants. Skilled natives have more positive attitudes about immigration, in spite of the potential fiscal burden it implies for them. Respondents believing that immigration drops natives' wages tended to oppose immigration and endorse reducing the benefits and rights granted to immigrants. More negative attitudes were found among individuals who dislike other races, while the opposite was found for those valuing cultural diversity. Catholic respondents favor more restrictive admission policies, in particular ones based on cultural factors. Respondents in provinces with high immigration and a high proportion of Moroccans wanted lower levels of immigration, though having contact with immigrants reduces the negative attitudes toward them. Individuals overestimating the levels of immigration are more prone to have negative attitudes toward immigrants.
    Keywords: international migration, immigration preferences
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2009–04
  2. By: Francesca Mazzolari; David Neumark
    Abstract: We study potential economic benefits of immigration stemming from two factors: first, that immigrants bring not only their labor supply with them, but also their consumption demands; and second, that immigrants may have a comparative advantage in the production of ethnic goods. Using data on the universe of business establishments located in California between 1992 and 2002 matched with Census of Population data, we find some evidence that immigrant inflows boost employment in the retail sector, which is non-traded and a non-intensive user of immigrant labor. We find that immigration is associated with fewer stand-alone retail stores, and a greater number of large and in particular big-box retailers – evidence that likely contradicts a diversity-enhancing effect of immigration. On the other hand, focusing more sharply on the restaurant sector, for which we can better identify the types of products consumed by customers, the evidence indicates that immigration is associated with increased ethnic diversity of restaurants.
    JEL: J18 J2 J61
    Date: 2009–04
  3. By: Herbert Brücker; Elke J. Jahn
    Abstract: This paper employs a wage-setting approach to analyze the labor market effects of immigration into Germany. The wage-setting framework relies on the assumption that wages tend to decline with the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This enables us to consider labor market rigidities, which are particularly relevant in Europe. We find that the elasticity of the wage-setting curve is particularly high for young and well-educated workers. The labor market effects of immigration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces wages by 0.1 percent
    Keywords: Migration, wage-setting, labor markets, panel data
    JEL: F22 J31 J61
    Date: 2009–03
  4. By: Korpi, Martin (Institute for Futures Studies)
    Abstract: The questions addressed in this paper are (i) whether immigration and domestic migration over time contributes to changes in wage inequality, and (ii) if so, which parts of the income distribution are these changes associated with? Finally, (iii) what are the correlates of changes in inequality, and does ethnic and educational background of the migrant population matter? Using full population data for 1993 and 2003 for Swedish local labour markets, a fixed effect model is estimated. Factors associated with increasing wage inequality are positive net migration of the Swedish born, increasing educational inequality and low levels of employment. Immigration and domestic migration of the foreign born has no statistically significant effect.
    Keywords: migration; wage inequality
    JEL: J30 J60
    Date: 2008–12
  5. By: Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School); Munch, Jakob Roland (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School); Rose Skaksen, Jan (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School)
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose and test a novel effect of immigration on the wages of native workers. Existing studies have focused on the wage effects that result from changes in the aggregate labour supply in a competitive labour market. We argue that if labour markets are not fully competitive, the use of immigrants may also affect wage formation at the most disaggregate level – the workplace. Using linked employeremployee data, we find that an increased use of workers from less developed countries has a significantly negative effect on the wages of native workers at the workplace – also when controlling for potential endogeneity of the immigrant share using both fixed effects and IV. Additional evidence suggests that this effect works at least partly through a general effect on the wage norm in the firm of hiring employees with poor outside options (the immigrants).
    Keywords: na
    JEL: D21 H32
    Date: 2009–01–01
  6. By: Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj (CEBR, Copenhagen); Munch, Jakob Roland (University of Copenhagen); Skaksen, Jan Rose (Copenhagen Business School)
    Abstract: In this paper, we focus on the short-run adjustments taking place at the workplace level when immigrants are employed. Specifically, we analyse whether individual native workers are replaced or displaced by the employment of immigrants within the same narrowly defined occupations at the workplace. For this purpose, we estimate a competing risks duration model for job spells of native workers that distinguishes between job-to-job and job-to-unemployment transitions. In general, we do not find any signs of native workers being displaced by immigrants. Furthermore, we find only very limited signs of replacement of native workers by immigrants. Instead, in particular low-skilled native workers are less likely to lose or leave their jobs when the firms hire immigrants.
    Keywords: immigration, adjustment costs, displacement, job spells, duration model
    JEL: F22 J61 J63
    Date: 2009–04
  7. By: Qari, Salmai (WZB - Social Science Research Center Berlin); Konrad, Kai A. (WZB - Social Science Research Center Berlin); Geys, Benny (WZB - Social Science Research Center Berlin)
    Abstract: For patriotic citizens, living in their native country is intrinsically preferable compared to living in the diaspora. In this paper, we analyze the implications of such a patriotic lock-in in a world with international migration and redistributive taxation. In a formal model of redistribution with international migration and fiscal competition we derive the main hypothesis: that countries with a more patriotic population should have higher redistributive taxes. Using ISSP survey data and combining them with OECD taxation data, we find robust evidence suggesting that a) higher patriotism is associated with higher tax burdens, and b) this relation is stronger for the upper-middle range of the income distribution.
    Keywords: patriotism, international mobility, taxation, redistribution, fiscal competition
    JEL: H20 H73
    Date: 2009–04
  8. By: SAFIR Abla
    Abstract: Using a recent household survey conducted in Senegal with detailed data on movements in and out of the household as well as transfers, both sent and received, we compare the impact of income shocks on both, focusing on differences between the urban and rural sectors. Marked differences emerge. While urban households share positive shocks with their network through sending them transfers, rural households react to positive income shocks through hosting new members, in fact young girls. On the other hand, we find that young adult children of household members leave the household in case of negative shocks while transfers received by the household do not seem to be impacted by shocks whatsoever. So far, except for departures of young adults, the closest mechanism to insurance is that negative shocks decrease arrivals in the household as well as transfers sent.
    Keywords: migration, remittances, shocks, rural-urban differences, Senegal
    Date: 2008–11
  9. By: de la Rica, Sara (University of the Basque Country); Ortega, Francesc (Universitat Pompeu Fabra)
    Abstract: This paper compares the economic and cultural gaps of the largest foreign-born ethnic minorities in Spain: Latinos, Eastern Europeans, Moroccans and individuals from Other Muslim countries. We focus on several outcomes: the gender education gap, early marriage, inter-ethnic marriage, fertility, female employment, command of Spanish, and social participation. Our results suggest that Latinos are the group with patterns of behavior closest to those of natives, followed by Eastern Europeans. In several dimensions, such as the marriage penalty for females, Moroccans and individuals from Other Muslim countries are the groups with larger gaps relative to natives. Our results also show large improvements in the educational attainment of younger Moroccan cohorts, which is an important determinant of the outcomes we have analyzed.
    Keywords: immigration, cultural gaps, ethnicity, assimilation
    JEL: J15 J61 F22
    Date: 2009–04
  10. By: Korpi, Martin (Institute for Futures Studies); Clark, William A.V. (Geography Department, UCLA, Los Angeles); Malmberg, Bo (Institute for Futures Studies)
    Abstract: This paper examines the variation in gains and losses from migration within the Swedish urban hierarchy. The central questions focus on whether increases in disposable income outweigh the associated increases in housing costs, especially with movements up the urban hierarchy to larger and more expensive locations. The paper extends the literature which considers cost of living adjustments associated with individual and household migration. The questions are addressed using Swedish Census data for 3.5 million individuals and two fixed effect panel models are estimated for four consecutive time periods, 1993-2002. The results consistently show relatively higher increases in disposable income moving up the urban hierarchy. Taking changes in housing expenditure into account, this pattern is however reversed; the largest gains are made by households moving from larger to smaller labour markets, a significantly smaller share of total domestic migration. The results point to factors beyond short term nominal income gains as important in explaining the bulk of domestic migration.
    Keywords: domestic migration; urban hierarchy
    JEL: J60
    Date: 2008–12
  11. By: Antoniya Owens
    Abstract: This research report uses the most recent available data to construct a detailed demographic, labor, and socioeconomic portrait of New England’s immigrants. It is the latest in a series of publications from the Center on the movement of people into and out of our region. ; The report evaluates the size, relative share, settlement patterns, and national origins of the region’s immigrants, and explores how these have changed in recent decades. It then describes the demographic characteristics of the region’s foreign-born residents, and analyzes their labor force behavior. Finally, the report evaluates immigrants’ socioeconomic status and reliance on public assistance as well as their civic contributions. Throughout the report, the author explores differences between immigrants in the region and in the nation as a whole, as well as between immigrants in the northern three New England states and those in the southern three. The report concludes with recommendations of how states can sustain and enhance the economic potential and social integration of their immigrants.
    Keywords: Immigrants - New England
    Date: 2009

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