nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2009‒04‒13
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Migrant Entrepreneurship and New Urban Economic Opportunities By Peter Nijkamp; Mediha Sahin; Tüzin Baycan-Levent
  2. The Internationalization of Science and its Influence on Academic Entrepreneurship By Stefan Krabel; Donald S. Siegel; Viktor Slavtchev
  3. The Urban Growth Potential of Second-Generation Migrant Entrepreneurs - A Sectoral Study on Amsterdam By Tüzin Baycan-Levent; Peter Nijkamp; Mediha Sahin
  4. Career placement of skilled migrants in the U.S. labor market : a dynamic approach By Neagu, Ileana Cristina
  5. Remittances and Chain Migration: Longitudinal Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina By Dimova, Ralitza; Wolff, François-Charles
  6. Changing Fertility Preferences One Migrant at a Time: The Impact of Remittances on the Fertility Rate By Naufal, George; Vargas-Silva, Carlos
  7. Determinants of Bilateral Immigration Flows Between The European Union and some Mediterranean Partner Countries: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey By de Arce, Rafael; Mahia, Ramon
  8. The Effect of the 2004 and 2007 EU Enlargement on the Spanish Labour Market By de la Rica, Sara
  9. Macroeconomic Consequences of Global Endogenous Migration: a General Equilibrium Analysis By Vladimir Borgy; Xavier Chojnicki; Gilles Le Garrec; Cyrille Schwellnus

  1. By: Peter Nijkamp (VU University Amsterdam); Mediha Sahin (VU University Amsterdam); Tüzin Baycan-Levent (Istanbul Technical University)
    Abstract: Nowadays, migrants form a significant share of the urban population, and their business is critical for urban economic growth. This paper addresses the key factors determining the position of migrant entrepreneurs in the urban economy in the Netherlands. In order to develop a solid assessment of CSFs for migrant entrepreneurs, and to understand business performance in a competitive urban environment, this study will investigate the entrepreneurial behaviour of migrants in Dutch cities from a micro-economic perspective by paying attention to the entrepreneurial behaviour of migrants, the role of their social networks, and the innovative potential of new growth markets in a city. Our research employs a comparative statistical analysis of empirical findings in order to map out opportunities, success conditions and bottlenecks for migrant entrepreneurs. Given our largely categorical database, we will employ a qualitative causal pattern recognition technique, viz. rough set analysis, to systematically assess the conditions for successful entrepreneurship of migrants.
    Keywords: Migrant entrepreneurship; rough set analysis; critical success factors; categorical pattern recognition analysis
    JEL: J61 L26
    Date: 2009–03–18
  2. By: Stefan Krabel (Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena); Donald S. Siegel (University at Albany, SUNY); Viktor Slavtchev (Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena)
    Abstract: We conjecture that the mobility of academic scientists increases the propensity of such agents to engage in academic entrepreneurship. Our empirical analysis is based on a survey of researchers at the Max Planck Society in Germany. We find that mobile scientists are more likely to become nascent entrepreneurs. Thus, it appears that citizenship and foreign-education are important determinants of the early stages of academic entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Academic Entrepreneurship, Human Capital, Scientific Mobility, Knowledge Transfer, Immigrant Entrepreneurship
    JEL: L26 O31
    Date: 2009–04–02
  3. By: Tüzin Baycan-Levent (Istanbul Technical University); Peter Nijkamp (VU University Amsterdam); Mediha Sahin (VU University Amsterdam)
    Abstract: This study focuses on the external orientations of the second-generation migrant entrepreneurs by addressing in particular the way – and the extent to which – the choice for entrepreneurship is made by higher-educated young ethnic generations. The empirical data of our study is based on in-depth personal interviews. We employed a recently developed multivariate qualitative classification method, called rough set analysis, in order to investigate the motivation, goals, and strategies of second-generation Turkish entrepreneurs in the ICT and the FIRE (i.e. Finance, Insurance and Real Estate) sectors in the Netherlands. The results of our study show that the second generation Turkish entrepreneurs in the Netherlands have started to be involved in new and non-traditional sectors like the ICT and FIRE sectors. The motivation and driving forces of the second-generation Turkish entrepreneurs stem from both their personal characteristics, shaped by their higher educational level, and their previous working experience as employees or entrepreneurs in the same sector.
    Keywords: second-generation migrant entrepreneurs; sectoral change in migrant entrepreneurship; Turkish migrant entrepreneurs; ICT and FIRE sectors; Amsterdam
    JEL: J61 L26
    Date: 2009–03–18
  4. By: Neagu, Ileana Cristina
    Abstract: The initial occupational placements of male immigrants in the U.S. labor market vary significantly by country of origin even when education and other factors are taken into account. Does the heterogeneity persist over time? Using data from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 U.S. Censuses, this study finds that the performance of migrants from countries with lower initial occupational placement levels improves at a higher rate compared with that of migrants originating from countries with higher initial levels. Nevertheless, the magnitude of convergence suggests full catch-up is unlikely. Country specific attributes are found to have less direct impact on the rate of assimilation than on the initial performance.
    Keywords: Population Policies,International Migration,Human Migrations&Resettlements,Voluntary and Involuntary Resettlement,
    Date: 2009–04–01
  5. By: Dimova, Ralitza (Brunel University); Wolff, François-Charles (University of Nantes)
    Abstract: Most of the literature on remittances has focused on their implications for the welfare of family members in the country of origin and has disregarded the possibility for remittances to trigger chain migration. In this paper, we address this issue with the use of longitudinal data from Bosnia and Herzegovina, one of the primary exporters of migrants and recipients of remittances in the world. Our panel data estimates indicate that remittances have a significant positive impact on the migration prospects of those remaining in the country of origin. Highly educated, healthy and young individuals are those most likely to migrate, suggesting that the implications of prospective migration on both the labor market and the rest of the economy in the origin country are likely to be negative.
    Keywords: emigration intentions, Bosnia and Herzegovina, remittances
    JEL: J61
    Date: 2009–03
  6. By: Naufal, George (American University of Sharjah); Vargas-Silva, Carlos (Sam Houston State University)
    Abstract: In this article we study the relationship between workers' remittances and fertility rate of the remittance receiving country. We identify two main channels by which remittances transfers affect fertility. First, migrants may adopt and later transmit to the household the ideas, values and attitudes predominant in the host country. Arguably, migrants with more attachment to the household would be more inclined to remit money home. Therefore, remittances can be seen as a proxy for the level of social norms (including fertility preferences) that is transmitted from the migrant to the household. Second, previous studies have shown that remittances money is often used for health services and educational expenses, factors that may ultimately decrease fertility rates. Using panel data for several countries we find a negative relationship between remittances and the fertility rate. The relationship is robust for a sub-sample of Latin American and African countries, but not for a sub-sample of Asian countries. In addition to finding evidence on the transfer of social norms from migrants to the home country, the paper also confirms that several socio-economic factors such as female labor force participation, percent of the population in rural areas and GDP per capita affect fertility rates.
    Keywords: remittances, fertility rate, panel data, Latin America, Africa, Asia
    JEL: F22 F24 J13 Q56
    Date: 2009–03
  7. By: de Arce, Rafael; Mahia, Ramon
    Abstract: In this paper one survey of econometrics modelling about migration flows determinants is carried out, with an extensive critical review of variables and methods used in recent literature. After it, a rigorous model to forecast migrations flows from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt and Turkey to EU is developed. The weight of network effects and potential migration in origin countries is pointed out and 15 years of forecast horizon is drawn.
    Keywords: migration determinants; migration econometric models; migration flows; EU-MPC migration
    JEL: F22 C23
    Date: 2008–07
  8. By: de la Rica, Sara (University of the Basque Country)
    Abstract: The 2004 and 2007 EU enlargement has led to a significant increase in the immigration flow to Spain. Individuals from the new-EU-12 countries accounted for no more than 10% of the whole Spanish immigrant population in 2004, but by 2008 they accounted for almost 20% of the total flow of immigrants. As of 2008, immigrants from Bulgaria, Poland and Rumania account for 97 percent of new-EU-12 immigrants. These immigrants are younger, and the vast majority of them are educated to secondary level. Their employment rate is higher than that of natives, but they are hit harder by unemployment than natives. Our results point to two conclusions from a policy prospective: first, the EU enlargement has significantly improved legal immigration from new-EU-12 countries. Second, the lack of employment assimilation in terms of job quality for workers from the new-EU-12 countries may discourage the entrance of highly qualified workers. The Spanish authorities should provide on-the-job training for these qualified workers so that they can find adequate job prospects in Spain and decide to stay.
    Keywords: EU enlargement, immigration, assimilation
    JEL: J61
    Date: 2009–03
  9. By: Vladimir Borgy; Xavier Chojnicki; Gilles Le Garrec; Cyrille Schwellnus
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the demographic and economic consequences of endogenous migrations flows over the coming decades in a multi-regions overlapping generations general equilibrium model (INGENUE 2) in which the world is divided in ten regions. Our analysis offers a global perspective on the consequences of international migration flows. The value-added of the INGENUE 2 model is that it enables us to analyze the effects of international migration on both the destination and the origin regions. A further innovation of our analysis is that international migration is treated as endogenous. In a first step, we estimate the determinants of migration in an econometric model. We show, in particular, that the income differential is one of the key variables explaining migration flows. In a second step, we endogenize migration flows in the INGENUE 2 model. In order to do so, we use the econometrically estimated relationships between demographic and income developments in the INGENUE model, which enables us to project long-run migration flows and to improve on projections of purely demographic models.
    Keywords: CGEM; migration; international capital flows
    JEL: F21 C68 J61 H55
    Date: 2009–04

This nep-mig issue is ©2009 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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