nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2009‒03‒14
eleven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. What Proportion of Children Stay in the Same Location as Adults, and How Does This Vary Across Location and Groups? By Timothy J. Bartik
  2. The Slave Trade and the Origins of Mistrust in Africa By Nathan Nunn; Leonard Wantchekon
  3. Vanishing Third World Emigrants? By Timothy J. Hatton; Jeffrey G. Williamson
  4. Health care utilization and immigration in Spain By Muñoz de Bustillo, Rafael; Antón, José-Ignacio
  5. Immigration and Social Benefits in a Mediterranean Welfare State: The Case of Spain By Muñoz de Bustillo, Rafael; Antón, José-Ignacio
  6. From rags to riches? Immigration and poverty in Spain By Muñoz de Bustillo, Rafael; Anton, José-Ignacio
  7. From guests to hosts: a first whole picture of immigrant-native wage differentials in Spain By Muñoz de Bustillo, Rafael; Carrera, Miguel; Antón, José-Ignacio
  8. Which European model for elderly care? Equity and cost-effectiveness in home based care in three European countries By Francesca Bettio; Giovanni Solinas
  9. Migration and the welfare state: Dynamic Political-Economy Theory By Assaf Razin; Efraim Sadka; Benjarong Suwankiri
  10. Migratory policy in developing countries: how to bring best people back? By Besancenot, Damien; Vranceanu, Radu
  11. Product Complexity, Quality of Institutions and the Pro-Trade Effect of Immigrants By Briant, Anthony; Combes, Pierre-Philippe; Lafourcade, Miren

  1. By: Timothy J. Bartik (W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research)
    Abstract: This paper provides new information on what proportion of individuals spend their adult work lives in their childhood metropolitan area or state. I also examine how this proportion varies across different demographic groups, and with the size and growth rate of the metropolitan area. I find that the proportion of individuals who spend most of their adulthood in their childhood metropolitan area is surprisingly high. Furthermore, this proportion does not go down as much as one might think for smaller or slower-growing metropolitan areas, or for college-educated persons. These findings imply that state and local investments in children may pay off for the state or local area that makes these investments. A surprisingly large proportion of the individuals who benefit from these childhood investments will remain in the same state or local area as adults, thereby boosting the local economy.
    Keywords: children, education, adults, location, demographics, bartik
    JEL: R23 J61 R11
    Date: 2009–02
  2. By: Nathan Nunn; Leonard Wantchekon
    Abstract: We investigate the historical origins of mistrust within Africa. Combining contemporary household survey data with historic data on slave shipments, we show that individuals whose ancestors were heavily raided during the slave trade today exhibit less trust in neighbors, relatives, and their local government. We confirm that the relationship is causal by using the historic distance from the coast of a respondent's ancestors as an instrument for the intensity of the slave trade, while controlling for the individual's current distance from the coast. We undertake a number of falsification tests, all of which suggest that the necessary exclusion restriction is satisfied. Exploiting variation among individuals who live in locations different from their ancestors, we show that most of the impact of the slave trade works through factors that are internal to the individual, such as cultural norms, beliefs, and values.
    JEL: N00 O1
    Date: 2009–03
  3. By: Timothy J. Hatton; Jeffrey G. Williamson
    Abstract: This paper documents a stylized fact not well appreciated in the literature. The Third World has been undergoing an emigration life cycle since the 1960s, and, except for Africa, emigration rates have been level or even declining since a peak in the late 1980s and the early 1990s. The current economic crisis will serve only to accelerate those trends. The paper estimates the economic and demographic fundamentals driving these Third World emigration life cycles to the United States since 1970 – the income gap between the US and the sending country, the education gap between the US and the sending country, the poverty trap, the size of the cohort at risk, and migrant stock dynamics. It then projects the life cycle up to 2024. The projections imply that pressure on Third World emigration over the next two decades will not increase. It also suggests that future US immigrants will be more African and less Hispanic than in the past.
    JEL: F22 J1 O15
    Date: 2009–03
  4. By: Muñoz de Bustillo, Rafael; Antón, José-Ignacio
    Abstract: The aim of this work is to analyze the use of health care services by immigrants in Spain. Using a nationally representative health survey from 2006-2007 that allows overcoming problems present in previous studies and negative binomial and hurdle models, it is found that there is no statistically significant difference in the patterns of visits to physicians and hospital stays between migrants and natives in Spain. However, immigrants have a lower access to specialists and visit emergency rooms with higher frequency than nationals.
    Keywords: health care; immigration; Spain; access; equity.
    JEL: F22 I10
    Date: 2009–03–01
  5. By: Muñoz de Bustillo, Rafael; Antón, José-Ignacio
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of immigration on the Spanish Welfare State nowadays. Using two different household surveys, both the reception of state cash transfers and the use of public health care insurance by nationals and immigrants are analysed. Controlling by observable socio-demographic characteristics, we find that immigrants receive fewer cash transfers than locals and do not exhibit a statistically significant higher use of health care services than nationals. The nature of the Spanish Welfare State compared to its European correlates and the age composition of the immigrant population, concentrated in active age, can help to explain these findings.
    Keywords: Immigration; Welfare State; Spain; cash transfers; health care
    JEL: F22 H53
    Date: 2009–03
  6. By: Muñoz de Bustillo, Rafael; Anton, José-Ignacio
    Abstract: This paper explores for the first time the relationship between immigration and poverty in Spain. Using the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions 2006, we find that both moderate and severe poverty are more acute among migrants than among nationals and social transfers play no substantial role in reducing poverty in the former case. In addition, using an econometric non-linear decomposition, we show the gap in deprivation incidence is fully explained by the different effects of household characteristics on poverty reduction for immigrants and locals.
    Keywords: Immigration; Poverty; Spain; Non-linear decomposition
    JEL: F22 O15 I32
    Date: 2009–03
  7. By: Muñoz de Bustillo, Rafael; Carrera, Miguel; Antón, José-Ignacio
    Abstract: This article analyses the immigrant-native wage differentials in Spain, which only recently has become a host country. The paper exploits the Earnings Structure Survey 2006, which is the first nationally representative sample of both foreigner and Spaniard employees. Using the Machado-Mata econometric procedure, wage differentials between locals and foreigners are decomposed into the gap related to characteristics and that due to different returns to endowments (i.e., discrimination). We found that, in absolute terms, the latter component grows across wage distribution, reflecting the existence of a kind of glass ceiling consistent with the evidence of over-education found by previous research.
    Keywords: immigration; wage differentials; Spain; quantile regression
    JEL: F22 J71
    Date: 2009–02–25
  8. By: Francesca Bettio; Giovanni Solinas
    Abstract: Long term care for the elderly is growing apace in developed economies. As growth is forcing change in existing production and delivery systems of elderly care services, the question arises as to how different systems compare in terms of cost-effectiveness, equity or quality. Based on an in depth survey carried out in Denmark, Ireland and Italy – the GALCA survey - this articles compares prevailing arrangements of home based long-term care in these three countries, focussing on the overall cost-effectiveness of the provisions as well as on employment equity for the care workers. The first set of comparisons is between alternative types of provisions within each country, and the results suggests that home based care is generally, although not consistently, more cost-effective than care within institutions. The second set of comparisons is between the average provision package in the different countries and suggests that, whereas the Italian and the Danish systems are the most cost effective, the Danish system is more equitable, overall. The results for cost-effectiveness for Italy are partly explained by progressive replacement of unpaid family carers with low cost immigrant workers directly employed by the families and often cohabiting with the elderly (the immigrant-in the family-model). This new model of long term care is spreading across Southern Europe and raises complex issues of equity and sustainability from an employment perspective.
    Keywords: ederly care, cost-effectiveness, migration, welfare
    JEL: I12 I39 J14
    Date: 2009–03
  9. By: Assaf Razin; Efraim Sadka; Benjarong Suwankiri
    Abstract: Milton Friedman, the Nobel-prize laureate economist, had it right: "It's just obvious that you can't have free immigration and a welfare state." That is, national welfare states can almost never coexist with the free movement of labor. This fact underscores the relevance of the analysis in this paper, which is a part of a forthcoming book on migration and the welfare state. It focuses on the demographic, and economic, fundamentals behind policy-restricted migration, and the policy-restricted generosity of the welfare state.
    JEL: E0 F2 H11
    Date: 2009–03
  10. By: Besancenot, Damien (CEPN and University Paris 13); Vranceanu, Radu (ESSEC Business School)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the decision of a migrant to return or stay within the framework of a signaling model with exogenous migratory costs. If employers have only imperfect information about the type of a worker and good workers migrate, bad workers might copy their strategy in order to get the same high wage as the good workers. Employers will therefore reduce the wage they pay to migrants and good workers incur a loss compared to the perfect information setup. In one hybrid equilibrium of the game, the more bad workers migrate, the higher the incentive for good workers to come back. Policy implications follow
    Keywords: Temporary Migration; Return Migrants; Hybrid Bayesian Equilibrium; Signalling Model
    JEL: D82 F22 J61
    Date: 2008–11
  11. By: Briant, Anthony; Combes, Pierre-Philippe; Lafourcade, Miren
    Abstract: The paper assesses the trade-creating impact of foreign-born residents on the international imports and exports of the French regions where they are settled. The pro-trade effect of immigrants is investigated along two intertwined dimensions: the complexity of traded goods and the quality of institutions in partner countries. The trade-enhancing impact of immigrants is, on average,more salient when they come froma country with weak institutions. However, this positive impact is especially large on the imports of simple products. When we turn to complex goods, for which the information channel conveyed by immigrants is the most valuable, immigration enhances imports regardless of the quality of institutions in the partner country. Regarding exports, immigrants substitute for weak institutions on both simple and complex goods.
    Keywords: gravity; immigration; product complexity; quality of institutions; trade
    JEL: F14 F22 R12
    Date: 2009–03

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