nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2009‒01‒03
twenty-six papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Emigration and the Age Profile of Retirement among Immigrants By Cobb-Clark, Deborah; Stillman, Steven
  2. Migration and Globalization: Challenges and Perspectives for the Research Infrastructure By Kahanec, Martin; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
  3. Immigration and cumulative causation: Explaining the ethnic and spatial diffusion of Spain\'s immigrant population 1997-2007 By Rickard Sandell
  5. Precautionary Savings by Natives and Immigrants in Germany By Matloob Piracha; Yu Zhu
  6. A Note on Measures of Human Capital for Immigrants: Examining the American Community Survey and New Immigrant Survey By Akee, Randall K. Q.; Yuksel, Mutlu
  7. Re-Examining the Earnings Assimilation of Immigrants By Taryn Ann Galloway
  8. Migration Enclaves, Schooling Choices and Social Mobility By Mario Piacentini
  9. Experiments with the Traveler's Dilemma: Welfare, Strategic Choice and Implicit Collusion By Mariapia Mendola; Gero Carletto
  10. FDI, the Brain Drain and Trade: Channels and Evidence By Artjoms Ivlevs; Jaime de Melo
  11. The Supply Side of Innovation: H-1B Visa Reforms and US Ethnic Invention By William R. Kerr; William F. Lincoln
  12. Restrictive immigration policy in Germany: pains and gains foregone? By Felbermayr, Gabriel J.; Geis, Wido; Kohler, Wilhelm K.
  13. Bringing Hirschman Back In: Conceptualizing Transnational Migration as a Reconfiguration of “Exit”, “Voice”, and “Loyalty” By Bert Hoffmann
  14. Skill Diffusion by Temporary Migration? Returns to Western European Work Experience in Central and East European Countries By Anna Iara
  15. Education, Training and Economic Performance: Evidence from Establishment Survival Data By William Collier; Francis Green; Young-Bae Kim; John Peirson
  16. Macroeconomics of Migration in New Member States By Rudolfs Bems; Philip Schellekens
  17. Immigrant Economic and Social Outcomes in Canada: Research and Data Development at Statistics Canada By Picot, Garnett
  18. Is There Migration-Related Inequity in Access to or in the Utilisation of Health Care in Germany? By Monika Sander
  19. Education and Early Career Outcomes of Second-Generation Immigrants in France By Belzil, Christian; Poinas, François
  20. Does citizenship matter? The economic impact of naturalizations in Germany By Max Friedrich Steinhardt
  21. Implicit Prejudice and Ethnic Minorities: Arab-Muslims in Sweden By Agerström, Jens; Rooth, Dan-Olof
  22. Brain Drain or Brain Bank? The Impact of Skilled Emigration on Poor-Country Innovation By Ajay Agrawal; Devesh Kapur; John McHale
  23. Mismeasured Household Size and Its Implications for the Identification of Economies of Scale By Halliday, Timothy
  24. International Scientist Mobility and the Locus of Technology Transfer By Edler, Jakob; Fier, Heide; Grimpe, Christoph
  25. They seek it here, they seek it there, they seek it everywhere. But where is employment found? By Boman, Anders
  26. Ethnic Minority Self-Employment in Germany: Geographical Distribution and Determinants of Regional Variation By Jana Bruder; Solvig Räthke-Döppner

  1. By: Cobb-Clark, Deborah (Australian National University); Stillman, Steven (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research Trust)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the relationship between immigrants' retirement status and the prevalence of return migration from the host country to their country of origin. We develop a simple theoretical model to illustrate that under reasonable conditions the probability of return migration is maximized at retirement. Reduced-form models of retirement status which control for the rate of return migration are then estimated using unique data on emigration rates matched to individual-level data for Australia. We find that immigrants, particularly immigrant women, are more likely to be retired than are native-born men and women with the same demographic, human capital, and family characteristics. Moreover, within the immigrant population, there is a negative relationship between the propensity to be retired and the return migration rate of one's fellow countrymen, particularly amongst men. This link is strongest for those individuals who are at (or near) retirement age and among those with the highest cost of return migration. These results suggest that the fiscal pressures associated with aging immigrant populations vary substantially across origin countries.
    Keywords: retirement, immigrants, return migration, emigration, Australia
    JEL: J26 J01 J08
    Date: 2008–12
  2. By: Kahanec, Martin (IZA); Zimmermann, Klaus F. (IZA, DIW Berlin and Bonn University)
    Abstract: International migration of people is a momentous and complex phenomenon. Research on its causes and consequences, requires sufficient data. While some datasets are available, the nature of migration complicates their scientific use. Virtually no existing dataset captures international migration trajectories. To alleviate these difficulties, we suggest: (i) the international coordination of data collection methodologies and standardization of immigrant identifiers; (ii) a longitudinal approach to data collection; (iii) the inclusion of adequate information about relevant characteristics of migrants, including retrospective information, in surveys; (iv) minimal anonymization; (v) immigrant boosters in existing surveys; (vi) the use of modern technologies and facilitation of data service centers; and (vii) making data access a priority of data collection.
    Keywords: migration, immigrants, data collection, data access, data infrastructure
    JEL: J15 J18 J61 J68
    Date: 2008–12
  3. By: Rickard Sandell (IMDEA Social Sciences)
    Abstract: This research argues that it is possible to explain the immigration intensity of close to 3 million immigration events in Spain by means of cumulative causation. In addition, it proposes that the theory of cumulative causation not only explains the intensity of migration but also the spatial and ethnic diffusion of the arriving immigrants. Thus, the research reported here significantly expands the explanatory scope of this approach. At the core of my argument is the innovative notion that to be able to take full advantage of the social capital made available by past immigrants, and which according to the theory of cumulative causation would make immigration more likely, it is not sufficient to be socially linked to past migrants, it is also essential for new immigrants to accept to live close to where past immigrants settled before them. The empirical analysis shows conclusively that the intensity of Spanish immigration is indeed subject to location specific cumulative causation, and that when present location specific cumulative causation gives rise to geographical and ethnic concentration of the immigrant population.
    Date: 2008–12–30
  4. By: Natasha T. Duncan; Brigitte S. Waldorf (Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Purdue University)
    Abstract: The United States provides a path to citizenship for its newcomers. Unlike other immigration countries, however, the United States does not have policies that ease assimilation or directly promote naturalization such as easily accessible and widely advertised language and civic instruction courses. Immigrants are by and large left on their own when facing legal and financial barriers or seeking instruction to pass the citizenship test. Not surprisingly, thus, we find that immigrants’ attributes such as educational attainment, English language proficiency, and income affect naturalization rates. This paper analyzes whether naturalization rates are also affected by neighborhood characteristics and informal networks for assistance and information. Towards that end, we estimate a binary model of immigrants’ citizenship status specifying the size of the immigrant enclave and its level of assimilation as key explanatory variables. The study uses 2005 ACS data, and focuses on immigrants from the Caribbean islands in the New York area. The results suggest that who they are and where they live has substantial impacts on immigrants’ propensities to have acquired US citizenship. Citizenship is unlikely for recent arrivals, those who do not speak English well, are poorly educated, and have a low income. Moreover, living in a neighborhood with a well assimilated immigrant enclave enhances the chance of acquiring US citizenship. This effect is stronger for highly educated than for poorly educated immigrants and thus misses the more vulnerable segments of the immigrant population.
    Keywords: US Immigration, Assimilation, Caribbean Immigrants
    JEL: J15 J61
    Date: 2008
  5. By: Matloob Piracha; Yu Zhu
    Abstract: This paper analyses the savings behaviour of natives and immigrants in Germany. It is argued that uncertainty about future income and legal status (in case of immigrants) is a key component in the determination of the level of precautionary savings. Using the German dataset, we exploit a natural experiment arising from a change in the nationality law in Germany to estimate the importance of precautionary savings. Using difference-in-differences approach, we find a significant reduction in savings and remittances for immigrants after the easing of citizenship requirements, compared to the pre-reform period. Our parametric specification shows that introduction of the new nationality law reduces the marginal propensity to save gap between natives and immigrants by up to 80%. These findings suggest that much of the differences in terms of the savings behaviour between natives and immigrants are driven by the savings arising from the uncertainties about future income and legal status rather than cultural differences.
    Keywords: Migrants; Remittances; Savings; Uncertainty
    JEL: D80 E21 F22
    Date: 2008–12
  6. By: Akee, Randall K. Q. (IZA); Yuksel, Mutlu (IZA)
    Abstract: In this paper we examine whether where one acquires their human capital matters in earnings regressions. We focus on a nationally-representative US data set and find that there is little difference between a measure of total years of education and measures for US and foreign-based years of education. There is a large difference, however, in where total experience is acquired: US-based experience commands a higher return to wages and is statistically highly significant. The measures used in this analysis must be inferred based on the year of migration to the US. Using an immigrant-specific data set, the New Immigrant Survey which contains explicit information on the human capital acquired in the US and abroad, we confirm these results.
    Keywords: immigrants, schooling, rates of return
    JEL: I21 J24 J61
    Date: 2008–12
  7. By: Taryn Ann Galloway (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: Studies on the earnings assimilation of immigrants have traditionally focused exclusively on immigrants in employment. However, given evidence of immigrants' difficulties in entering and remaining in the labor market, restricting the population to those in employment may entail a selection bias. In addition, the primary variable of interest in such studies is often the duration of residence or the years since migration (YSM), which is interpreted as a proxy for potential labor market experience in the host country. The appropriateness of that proxy will, however, also depend on the extent to which immigrants are able to quickly enter and remain in the labor market. This study thus re-examines evidence on the earnings assimilation of immigrants in light of selection into the labor market and with better information on actual labor market experience in the host country. The findings suggest that a major revision of previous conclusions about the earnings assimilation of immigrants in Norway may be in order.
    Keywords: Immigration; assimilation; employment; earnings
    JEL: J20
    Date: 2008–12
  8. By: Mario Piacentini (University of Geneva)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the presence of a network externality which might explain the persistence of low schooling achievements among internal migrants. We test empirically whether young migrants schooling decisions are affected by the presence of covillagers at destination, using data on life-time histories of migration and education choices from a rural region of Thailand. Different modelling approaches are used to account for the self-selection of young migrants, for potential endogeneity of the network size, and for unobserved heterogeneity in individual preferences. The size of the migrant network is found to negatively affect the propensity of young migrants to pursue schooling while in the city. This finding suggests that policies seeking to minimise stratification in enclaves might have a socially multiplied impact on schooling participation, and, ultimately, affect the socio-economic mobility of the rural born.
    Keywords: education, networks, migration
    JEL: I21 L14 O15
    Date: 2008–10–27
  9. By: Mariapia Mendola; Gero Carletto
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of male-dominated international migration in shaping labor market outcomes by gender in migrant-sending households in Albania. Using detailed information on family migration experience from the latest Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) survey, we find that male and female labor supplies respond differently to current and past migration episodes of household members. Controlling for the potential endogeneity of migration and for the income (remittances) effect, estimates show that having a migrant abroad decreases female paid labor supply while increasing unpaid work. On the other hand, women with household members with past migration experience are significantly more likely to engage in self-employment and less likely to supply unpaid work. The same relationships do not hold for men. These findings suggest that over time male-dominated Albanian migration may lead to women’s empowerment in the access to income-earning opportunities at origin.
    Date: 2008–12
  10. By: Artjoms Ivlevs (University of Nottingham); Jaime de Melo (University of Geneva, CERDI and CEPR)
    Abstract: This paper explores the links between the patterns of migration (high vs. low-skill), trade policy, and foreign direct investment (FDI) from the standpoint of sending countries. A skeleton general equilibrium model with a non-traded good and sector-specific labour is used to explore the effects of the skill-composition of exports on FDI. The model suggests that if exports are low-skill intensive, emigration of high- skill labour leads to positive FDI, suggesting that migration and FDI are complements. Cross-sectional analysis using FDI and emigration data for 103 migration-sending countries over the period 1990-2000 finds some support for this conjecture.
    Keywords: Migration, FDI, Brain Drain
    JEL: F22 F13 F16
    Date: 2008–10–27
  11. By: William R. Kerr (Harvard Business School, Entrepreneurial Management Unit); William F. Lincoln (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI)
    Abstract: This study evaluates the impact of high-skilled immigrants on US technology formation. Specifically, we use reduced-form specifications that exploit large changes in the H-1B visa program. Fluctuations in H-1B admissions levels significantly influence the rate of Indian and Chinese patenting in cities and firms dependent upon the program relative to their peers. Most specifications find weak crowding-in effects or no effect at all for native patenting. Total invention increases with higher admission levels primarily through the direct contributions of ethnic inventors.
    Keywords: Innovation, Research and Development, Patents, Scientists, Engineers, Inventors, H-1B, Immigration, Ethnicity, India, China, Endogenous Growth.
    JEL: F15 F22 J44 J61 O31
    Date: 2008–12
  12. By: Felbermayr, Gabriel J.; Geis, Wido; Kohler, Wilhelm K.
    Abstract: Many European countries restrict immigration from new EU member countries. The rationale is to avoid adverse wage and employment effects. We quantify these effects for Germany. Following Borjas (2003), we estimate a structural model of labor demand, based on elasticities of substitution between workers with different experience levels and education. We allow for unemployment which we model in a price-wage-setting framework. Simulating a counterfactual scenario without restrictions for migration from new EU members countries, we find moderate negative wage effects, combined with increased unemployment for some types of workers. Wage-setting mitigates wage cuts.
    Keywords: wages, migration
    JEL: J48 J61 J68
    Date: 2008
  13. By: Bert Hoffmann (GIGA Institute of Latin American Studies)
    Abstract: Albert O. Hirschman’s scheme of “exit and voice,” long a classic in the study of migration and its political implications, was conceived within the framework of “methodological nationalism.” However, the rise of migrant transnationalism is eroding the classic migration paradigm. Combining theoretical considerations with empirical insights from Latin American cases, this paper argues that a critical reappraisal of Hirschman’s scheme provides a helpful heuristic tool for conceptualizing the new character of today’s transnational migration. Whereas in the traditional approach to international migration the options of exit, voice, and loyalty are considered to be mutually exclusive, transnational migration can be defined precisely by the overlapping and simultaneity of these categories.
    Keywords: migration, transnationalism, "exit and voice," Latin America, "methodological nationalism"
    Date: 2008–12
  14. By: Anna Iara (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the debate on the effects of migration by providing evidence on the returns to working experience from western Europe in eastern European labour markets. In particular, using the 2003 Youth Central and Eastern Eurobarometer dataset, we test the hypothesis that there are differential returns to foreign as opposed to domestic work experience. Our analysis combines the Mincer wage equation framework and the Roy model of migration. The latter suggests that migration responds to net expected benefits. Hence, return migration is endogenous with respect to differential returns to foreign working experience. To allow for selectivity on observable or unobservable characteristics, we estimate an endogenous switching model in two steps. This procedure combines probit estimates of propensities to work and to acquire foreign work expericence respectively, and OLS estimates of earnings equations for stayers and movers, with the inclusion of nonselection hazards obtained in the first step. The expected wage increase is the difference between post-return migrants' wages and wages under similar conditions in the absence of migration. For any individual, only one of these measures can be observed. We impute the respective counterfactuals from the separate wage regressions. Our analysis shows that movers and stayers are rewarded for different human capital characteristics. We find an average earnings premium for foreign work experience of around 30%. This can be seen as partial evidence for international skill diffusion: temporary migrants may upgrade their skills by learning on the job in countries with higher technological development, and subsequently bring human capital to their source country, thus adding to know-how diffusion and the catching-up of their economy. We perform additional empirical analyses to support this interpretation: we show that the premium found for return migration does not primarily reward the language proficiencies of returning migrants, and we further provide indicative evidence that no earnings premium is obtained for work-related stays abroad in other central and eastern European transition countries.
    Keywords: Central and Eastern Europe, return migration, wage premium, skill diffusion
    JEL: J31 J61 O15
    Date: 2008–07
  15. By: William Collier; Francis Green; Young-Bae Kim; John Peirson
    Abstract: This paper analyses the savings behaviour of natives and immigrants in Germany. It is argued that uncertainty about future income and legal status (in case of immigrants) is a key component in the determination of the level of precautionary savings. Using the German dataset, we exploit a natural experiment arising from a change in the nationality law in Germany to estimate the importance of precautionary savings. Using difference-in-differences approach, we find a significant reduction in savings and remittances for immigrants after the easing of citizenship requirements, compared to the pre-reform period. Our parametric specification shows that introduction of the new nationality law reduces the marginal propensity to save gap between natives and immigrants by up to 80%. These findings suggest that much of the differences in terms of the savings behaviour between natives and immigrants are driven by the savings arising from the uncertainties about future income and legal status rather than cultural differences.
    Keywords: Training; Education; Human capital; Profit, Skill
    JEL: J24 J1 L21
    Date: 2008–12
  16. By: Rudolfs Bems; Philip Schellekens
    Abstract: This paper examines the macroeconomic impact of migration on income convergence in the EU's New Member States (NMS). The paper focuses on cross-border mobility of labor and examines the implications for policymakers with the help of a general equilibrium model. It finds that cross-border labor mobility provides ample benefits in terms of faster and smoother convergence. Challenges, however, include containing wage pressures and better mobilizing and utilizing resident labor that does not cross borders.
    Keywords: Migration , Labor mobility , European Economic and Monetary Union , Wages , Capital flows , Economic growth , Income ,
    Date: 2008–12–04
  17. By: Picot, Garnett
    Abstract: The past 25 years has seen a more or less continuous deterioration in the economic outcomes for immigrants entering Canada. However, economic outcomes for second-generation Canadians (children of immigrants) are more positive, and in spite of the economic difficulties, after four years in Canada most immigrants entering in 2000 remained positive regarding their immigration decision, citing the freedom, safely, rights, security and prospects for the future as the aspects they appreciate most in Canada. This paper reviews what we know about the economic deterioration, and the possible reasons behind it, in particular based on the research conducted at Statistics Canada. It also outlines the data development undertaken by Statistics Canada and its policy department partners to support increased research of this topic. From 2002 to 2008, Statistics Canada released 64 research articles on the above topics, and others related to immigration. The research suggests that through the 1980s and 1990s three factors were associated with the deterioration in economic outcomes: (1) the changing mix of source regions and related issues such as language and school quality, (2) declining returns to foreign experience, and (3) the deterioration in economic outcomes for all new labour market entrants, of which immigrants are a special case. After 2000, the reasons appear to be different, and are associated more with the dramatic increase in the number of engineers and information technology (IT) workers entering Canada, and the IT economic downturn. Data also suggest that, by and large, Canadians continue to see immigration as an important part of the development of Canada and that they continue to support it. The paper reviews Statistics Canada research that indicates that economic outcomes for most second-generation Canadians remain very positive. Finally, there is a discussion of the interaction between immigration and social cohesion in Canada, and possible reasons as to why we hav
    Keywords: Ethnic diversity and immigration,
    Date: 2008–12–16
  18. By: Monika Sander
    Abstract: This paper analyses immigrants¿ access to health care and utilisation of health care services in Germany. Thereby, it is investigated if there is inequity in access to or in the utilisation of health care services due to a lack of language skills or due to a lack of information about the health care system (approximated by years since migration) among first- and secondgeneration immigrants. The data used are drawn from eleven waves of the SOEP (1995-2006). With regard to the probability to contact a physician (as a proxy for access), German language skills are found to have no significant influence for all groups of immigrants. The hypothesis of inequity in access to health care due to access barriers caused by a lack of German language skills is therefore not supported by the data. However, mother tongue language skills seem to be important for the contact probability of the first- and secondgeneration: Having only good or poor mother tongue language skills reduces the probability of a doctor contact. The effect is found to be significant for first- and second-generation men. For the frequency of doctor visits (utilisation), poor German language skills are found to exert a significant influence: Those reporting poor language skills have a lower expected number of doctor visits. The effect is found to be significant for first-generation men and for secondgeneration men and women. Hence, there seems to be inequity in health care utilisation due to a lack of German language skills. With the exception of first-generation men ¿ where it is found that poor mother tongue language skills reduce the expected number of doctor visits significantly, no significant effect is found for mother tongue language skills. With regard to the duration of residence, the results indicate that years since migration have an impact on the contact decision of first-generation immigrant women, whereby a significant positive influence is found. Hence, missing knowledge about the health care system could create additional access barriers and yield inequity in access to health care in the group of firstgeneration women. The duration of residence seems to have no influence on the frequency decision.
    Keywords: Utilisation of health care, inequity, immigrants, SOEP
    JEL: C23 D63 I10
    Date: 2008
  19. By: Belzil, Christian (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris); Poinas, François (CNRS, GATE)
    Abstract: We estimate a flexible dynamic model of education choices and early career employment outcomes of the French population. Individuals are allowed to choose between 4 options: continue to the next grade, accept a permanent contract, accept a temporary contract, or withdraw from the labor force (a residual state). Our analysis focuses on the comparison between French Second-Generation Immigrants whose parents are born in Africa and French-natives. We find that schooling attainments explain around two thirds of the differences in access to early career employment stability. However, one third cannot be linked to observed investment in human capital.
    Keywords: schooling attainments, second-generation immigrants, fixed term employment
    JEL: I2 J15 J24 J41
    Date: 2008–12
  20. By: Max Friedrich Steinhardt (Centro Studi Luca d’Agliano and Hamburg Institute of International Economics)
    Abstract: The paper analyzes whether citizenship acquisition affects the labor market performance of immigrants in Germany. The study uses actual micro data from the IAB employment sample, which covers more than 80% of the whole labor force in Germany. The econometric analysis is carried out using both cross-sectional and panel data techniques, which allow to disentangle the effects of self-selection and legal impact of citizenship acquisition. The estimates from a simple OLS specification suggest the existence of a wage premium of naturalized immigrants. Panel estimates show an immediate positive naturalization effect on wages and an accelerated wage growth in the years after the naturalization event. Both results are consistent with the argument that naturalization increases the labor market opportunities of immigrants in various ways.
    Keywords: Naturalization, self-selection, socioeconomic integration
    JEL: J31 J61 J68
    Date: 2008–11–30
  21. By: Agerström, Jens (Kalmar University); Rooth, Dan-Olof (Kalmar University)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether Swedish employers implicitly/automatically hold i) negative attitudes toward Arab-Muslims, an ethnic minority group subjected to substantial labor market discrimination in Sweden, and more specifically ii) associate members of this minority group with lower work productivity, as compared to native Swedes. Adapted versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 1998) designed to measure implicit attitudes and productivity stereotypes toward Arab-Muslims were used. Corresponding explicit measures were administered. The results clearly show that employers have stronger negative implicit attitudes toward Arab-Muslims relative to native Swedes as well as implicitly perceive Arab-Muslims to be less productive than native Swedes. Notably, the explicit measures reveal much weaker negative associations. Whereas traditional research has focused on self-conscious, explicit work related attitudes toward various ethnic minority groups, this study offers a novel approach to understanding work related prejudice.
    Keywords: implicit, attitudes, stereotypes, discrimination, ethnicity
    JEL: J70
    Date: 2008–12
  22. By: Ajay Agrawal; Devesh Kapur; John McHale
    Abstract: The development prospects of a poor country depend in part on its capacity for innovation. The productivity of its innovators depends in turn on their access to technological knowledge. The emigration of highly skilled individuals weakens local knowledge networks (brain drain), but may also help remaining innovators access valuable knowledge accumulated abroad (brain bank). We develop a model in which the size of the optimal innovator diaspora depends on the competing strengths of co-location and diaspora effects for accessing knowledge. Then, using patent citation data associated with inventions from India, we estimate the key co-location and diaspora parameters; the net effect of innovator emigration is to harm domestic knowledge access, on average. However, knowledge access conferred by the diaspora is particularly valuable in the production of India's most important inventions as measured by citations received. Thus, our findings imply that the optimal emigration level may depend, at least partly, on the relative value resulting from the most cited compared to average inventions.
    JEL: O3 O33
    Date: 2008–12
  23. By: Halliday, Timothy (University of Hawaii at Manoa)
    Abstract: We consider the possibility that demographic variables are measured with errors which arise because household surveys measure demographic structures at a point-in-time, whereas household composition evolves throughout the survey period. We construct and estimate sharp bounds on household size and find that the degree of these measurement errors is non-trivial. However, while these errors have the potential to resolve the Deaton-Paxson paradox, they fail to do so.
    Keywords: migration, measurement error, semi-parametric bounds, economies of scale
    JEL: J12 C14
    Date: 2008–12
  24. By: Edler, Jakob; Fier, Heide; Grimpe, Christoph
    Abstract: University technology transfer has attracted considerable attention in the literature with a focus on the institutions, the agents involved in technology commercialisation or the differentiation between formal and informal technology transfer mechanisms. There has, however, been little systematic research on how the mobility of university scientists influences their propensity to engage in technology transfer activities and, particularly, on how mobility influences the locus of such activities. This paper therefore analyses the link between university scientists’ technology transfer activities and their international mobility patterns. We characterise scientist mobility along the two dimensions ‘frequency’ and ‘intensity’ resulting in an individual mobility pattern. We argue that the mobility pattern as well as the scientist’s personal characteristics affects the likelihood whether a transfer of technology occurs to a firm in the scientist’s home and/or host country. Based on a sample of more than 500 German university scientists, our results indicate that a substantial share of scientists engages in technology transfer both to the home as well as to the host country. There are, however, considerable differences regarding the factors influencing the locus of technology transfer.
    Keywords: scientist mobility, university technology transfer, internationalisation
    JEL: J61 O33
    Date: 2008
  25. By: Boman, Anders (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: This paper uses a unique possibility to link unemployed individuals’ stated willingness to move with administrative data, giving us the possibility to analyse the effects of mobility on labour market outcome. Furthermore, we can do this not only for those who actually move, but also for non-movers. I find that those who extend their search area in job search geographically do have a higher probability of escaping unemployment. However, this positive effect is not only present for jobs outside the local labour market, as would be expected, but the greatest effect is found on the local labour market. This indicates positive selection; i.e. it is not so much the increased geographic scope per se that increases the likelihood of escaping unemployment, but mainly differences in unobservable characteristics between those who choose to use a larger search area and those who do not.<p>
    Keywords: unemployment; selection; geographic mobility; job search; search scope
    JEL: D83 J64 R23
    Date: 2008–12–16
  26. By: Jana Bruder (University of Rostock); Solvig Räthke-Döppner (University of Rostock)
    Abstract: In Germany self-employment among foreigners increased significantly in recent years. We study the geographical distribution of ethnic minority self-employment in Germany and find determinants for variations in start-up activities across 440 administrative German regions. We analyze the Statistic of Business Notifications and provide an extensive overview about start-up activities of foreigners in the time period 2001-2005. Moreover we apply a count data model on the number of business registrations in a particular region. We find that business foundations by foreigners are mainly enhanced by population growth, a higher population density and a large fraction of foreigners on overall population.
    Keywords: Ethnic Minority Business, Entrepreneurship, Germany, Count Data Model
    JEL: L26 M13 C21
    Date: 2008

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