nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2008‒12‒07
fourteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Unemployment Duration among Immigrants and Natives: Unobserved Heterogeneity in a Multi-Spell Duration Model By Raquel Carrasco; José Ignacio García Pérez
  2. The impact of a migration-caused selection effect on regional mortality differences in Italy and Germany By Marc Luy; Graziella Caselli
  3. On the Evolutionary Edge of Migration as an Assortative Mating Device By Stark, Oded; Behrens, Doris A.; Wang, Yong
  4. Education and Mobility By Machin, Stephen; Pelkonen, Panu; Salvanes, Kjell G.
  5. School desegregation, school choice and changes in residential location patterns by race By Nathaniel Baum-Snow; Byron Lutz
  6. The Aid-Migration of Trade-Off By AZAM, Jean-Paul; BERLINSCHI, Ruxanda
  7. Closing the 49th Parallel: An Unexplored Episode in Canadian Economic and Political History By James B. Davies; Stanley L. Winer
  8. Happiness in the dual society of urban China:Hukou identity, horizontal inequality and heterogeneous reference By Shiqing Jiang; Ming Lu; Hiroshi Sato
  9. How do Heterogeneous Social Interactions affect the Peer Effect in Rural–Urban Migration?:Empirical Evidence from China By Zhao Chen; Shiqing Jiang; Ming Lu; Hiroshi Sato
  10. The Effect of Integration Policies on the Time until Regular Employment of Newly Arrived Immigrants: Evidence from Denmark By Clausen, Jens; Heinesen, Eskil; Hummelgaard, Hans; Husted, Leif; Rosholm, Michael
  11. Modeling Regional Growth Spillovers: An Analysis of Employment Growth, Migration Behavior, Local Public Services and Household Income in Appalachia By Gebremeskel H. Gebremariam; Tesfa G. Gebremedhin; Peter V. Schaeffer; Randall W. Jackson
  12. When Migrant Remittances Are Not Everlasting, How Can Morocco Make Up? By Fida Karam
  13. The consequences of an open labour market in a closed product market in the economic environment of European professional football By Trudo Dejonghe; Wim Van Opstal
  14. Immigration in Italy: An overview By Venditto, Bruno; Caruso , Immacolata

  1. By: Raquel Carrasco (Departamento de Economía, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid); José Ignacio García Pérez (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide)
    Abstract: This paper studies whether the unemployment dynamics of immigrants differ from those of natives, paying special attention to the impact of accounting for unobserved heterogeneity among individuals. Using a large administrative data set for Spain, we estimate multiple-spell discrete duration models which disentangle unobserved heterogeneity from duration dependence. Specifically, we estimate random effects models assuming that the distribution of the effects is discrete with finite support, and fixed effects models in which the distribution of the unobserved effects is left unrestricted. Our results show the importance of accounting for unobserved heterogeneity and that mistaken policy implications can be derived due to improper treatment of unmeasured variables. We find that lack of control for unobserved heterogeneity leads to the conclusion that immigrant males have a higher probability of leaving unemployment than natives and that the negative effect of unemployment benefits for immigrants lasts longer than for natives. Nonetheless, the estimates which do control for unobserved heterogeneity show the opposite results.
    Keywords: Duration models; Discrete choice; Multiple spells; Unobserved heterogeneity; Unemployment; Immigration.
    JEL: J64 J61 C23 C41 J65
    Date: 2008–12
  2. By: Marc Luy (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Graziella Caselli
    Abstract: -
    Keywords: Germany, Italy, ageing, migration trends, mortality, mortality determinants, regional demography, selective migration
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2008–11
  3. By: Stark, Oded; Behrens, Doris A.; Wang, Yong
    Abstract: Replaced with revised version of paper 02/27/08.
    Keywords: Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Labor and Human Capital,
    Date: 2008
  4. By: Machin, Stephen (University College London); Pelkonen, Panu (London School of Economics); Salvanes, Kjell G. (Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: We show that the length of compulsory education has a causal impact on regional labour mobility. The analysis is based on a quasi-exogenous staged Norwegian school reform, and register data on the whole population. Based on the results, we conclude that part of the US-Europe difference, as well as the European North-South difference in labour mobility, is likely to be due to differences in levels of education in the respective regions.
    Keywords: labour market, mobility, education
    JEL: I28 J24 J61
    Date: 2008–11
  5. By: Nathaniel Baum-Snow; Byron Lutz
    Abstract: This paper examines the residential location and school choice responses to desegregation of large public school districts. Unique data and variation in the timing of desegregation orders facilitate the analysis. The 16 percent decline in white public enrollment due to desegregation primarily led to migration to suburban districts in the South and increased private enrollment in other regions. Desegregation caused black public enrollment to increase by 20 percent outside the South largely due to population changes. The spatial distributions of responses by race to desegregation orders closely match those predicted by a model of residential location and private school choice.
    Date: 2008
  6. By: AZAM, Jean-Paul; BERLINSCHI, Ruxanda
    Date: 2008–11
  7. By: James B. Davies (University of Western Ontario); Stanley L. Winer (Carleton University)
    Abstract: We draw attention to, and begin to consider the implications of the severe restrictions on emigration by Canadians to the United States introduced under the U.S. Immigration Act of 1965. These restrictions came into effect in 1968 and lasted until mobility began to increase under the free trade agreements in the early 1990's. This is an unusual episode in Canadian history, one whose implications for public policy have received little attention. The near closing of the border during this period likely led to a decrease in the elasticity of labour supply in Canada. We derive the implications of such a change in a competitive political model where the political costs and benefits of levying taxes on different activities are distinguished. Increased reliance on, and changes in the structure of, labour income taxes, and an increase in the size of the public sector are predicted. We show that these predictions are consistent with what occurred over the two decades after the near closing of the U.S. border.
    Date: 2008
  8. By: Shiqing Jiang; Ming Lu; Hiroshi Sato
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of income inequality on the subjective well-being of different social groups in urban China. We classify urban social groups according to their hukou status: rural migrants, “born” urban residents, and “acquired” urban residents who once changed their hukou identity from rural to urban. We focus on how the horizontal inequality—income disparity between migrants and urban residents—affects individual happiness. The main results are as follows. First, migrants suffer from unhappiness when the horizontal inequality increases, but urban residents show a much smaller aversion to the horizontal inequality. Second, migrants will not be happier if their relative incomes within their migrant group increase, while urban residents do become happier when their incomes increase within their group’s income distribution. Third, “acquired” urban residents have traits of both migrants and “born” urban residents. They have an aversion to the horizontal inequality like migrants, and they also favor higher relative income among urban residents. Fourth, “born” urban residents have lower happiness scores when they are old. People who are Communist Party members strongly dislike the horizontal inequality. Our findings suggest that migrants, “acquired” urban residents, elderly people and Party members from “born” urban residents are the potential proponents of social integration policies in urban China.
    Keywords: Horizontal inequality, Happiness, Hukou identity, Migration, Social integration; horizontal inequality, happiness, Houku identity, migration, social integration
    JEL: I31 O15 R23
    Date: 2008
  9. By: Zhao Chen; Shiqing Jiang; Ming Lu; Hiroshi Sato
    Abstract: In this paper, we use the “2002 Chinese Household Income Project Survey” (CHIPS2002) data to examine how heterogeneous social interactions affect the peer effect in the rural–urban migration decision in China. We find that the peer effect, measured by the village migration ratio, significantly increases the individual probability of outward migration. We also find that the magnitude of the peer effect is nonlinear, depending on the strength and type of social interactions with other villagers. Interactions in information sharing can increase the magnitude of the peer effect, while interactions in mutual help in labor activities, such as help in housing construction, nursing and farm work in busy seasons, will impede the positive role of the peer effect. Being aware of the simultaneity bias caused by the two-way causality between social interaction strengths and migration, we utilize “historical family political identity in land reform” as an instrumental variable for social interactions. However, the hypothesis that probit and instrumental-variable probit results are not significantly different is not rejected. The existence of a nonlinear peer effect has rich policy implications. For policy makers to encourage rural–urban migration, it is feasible to increase education investment in rural areas or increase information sharing among rural residents. However, only an increase in the constant term in the regression, i.e. a “big push” in improving institutions for migration, can help rural Chinese residents escape the low equilibrium in migration.
    Keywords: labor migration, urbanization, peer effect, social integration, social multiplier
    JEL: J61 O15 R23
    Date: 2008
  10. By: Clausen, Jens (AKF, Danish Institute of Governmental Research); Heinesen, Eskil (AKF, Danish Institute of Governmental Research); Hummelgaard, Hans (AKF, Danish Institute of Governmental Research); Husted, Leif (AKF, Danish Institute of Governmental Research); Rosholm, Michael (Aarhus School of Business)
    Abstract: We analyse the effect of active labour-market programmes on the hazard rate into regular employment for newly arrived immigrants using the timing-of-events duration model. We take account of language course participation and progression in destination country language skills. We use rich administrative data from Denmark. We find substantial lock-in effects of participation in active labour-market programmes. Post programme effects on the hazard rate to regular employment are significantly positive for wage subsidy programmes, but not for other types of programmes. For language course participants, improvement in language proficiency has significant and substantial positive effects on the hazard rate to employment.
    Keywords: programme evaluation, duration analysis, language skills
    JEL: J64 J24 J68 J61 C41
    Date: 2008–11
  11. By: Gebremeskel H. Gebremariam; Tesfa G. Gebremedhin; Peter V. Schaeffer; Randall W. Jackson
    Abstract: In this paper, a spatial simultaneous growth equilibrium model of employment growth, migration behavior, median household income and local public expenditures is developed. The model is empirically estimated by Generalized Spatial Three-Stage Least Squares estimator using count- level data from Appalachia for 1990-2000. The results suggest the existence of interdependence among the growth rates of employment, gross in- and out-migration, median household income and local public services in the form of feedback simultaneities, spatial autoregressive lag and spatial cross-regressive lag simultaneities. The findings also suggest the existence of conditional convergence with respect to endogenous variables of the model. The speed of adjustment for the growth rate of median household income is the fastest and for the growth rate of gross in- migration is the slowest. The findings also indicate the clustering of counties on the basis of their growth rates of median household incomes which would require the need for development policy coordination at the regional level, or the whole of Appalachia. Another key finding of the study is that Appalachian counties with higher initial population sizes were both destinations and sources of migrants during the study period.
    Keywords: Growth Spillovers, Spatial lag, GS3SLS, Employment, Income, and Migration
    Date: 2008
  12. By: Fida Karam (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I)
    Abstract: In this paper, I run a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Moroccan economy to investigate the transmission channels through which remittances affect households and sectors. I give a particular attention to the investment of remittances in the real estate sector, by allowing a segmentation of the savings market. To begin with, I assess the negative impact of immigration restrictive policies and permanent migration on the future evolution of remittances. Then I ask what would be the appropriate policies to take the maximum profit from current flows. It turns out that channelling investment from real estate to productive sectors is unexpectedly harmful in terms of growth and welfare. Positive effects stem only from government ability to attract investors through an improvement in the country risk premium, and private efforts to reduce international transfer costs.
    Keywords: Sequential Dynamics; Computable General Equilibrium Model; Migration; Remittances.
    Date: 2008–02–04
  13. By: Trudo Dejonghe (Department of Business Studies, Lessius University College); Wim Van Opstal (Higher Institute for Labour Studies – Catholic University of Leuven)
    Abstract: Ever since the Bosman case opened the labour market for players in European professional football, competitive balance has reduced in favour of the Big 5 leagues (England, Spain, Italy, Germany and France). In this article we show that changing structures towards an open labour market in a closed product market resulted in a migration of player talents towards the major leagues and teams and in a competitive disadvantage for the smaller market leagues and their teams. Next to a theoretical argumentation, we provide empirical evidence and assess future options for the structure of European professional football.
    Keywords: Bosman case, competitive balance, international labour mobility, professional team sports, stepping stone league
    JEL: J61 L52 L83
    Date: 2008–12
  14. By: Venditto, Bruno; Caruso , Immacolata
    Abstract: The expansion and the rooting of non European immigrants which is taking place in the more advanced European countries, mirror a world context which is marked by imbalances both in terms of growth and welfare. A correct analysis of migration, of its structural characteristics and of the new dynamics of migration flows must consider the globalisation process as well as the effect that this is having with regard to the movement of people, in this context the pull and push factors mutually reinforce a phenomenon which can influence either in a positive or in a negative way the international relationships among countries. In the last quarter of the century, a steady increase of migrants have crossed Europe; this has generated a complex relationship made of integration and rejection, adaptation and conflicts, which has influenced all aspect of both economic and social life, producing new phenomenon, giving birth to new problems which require new approaches and solutions. Italy is part of such depiction since has witnessed in the last decades, a solid influx of immigrants which have increased with a high rate of growth. In fact in 2006 Italy with 2,938,922 legal immigrants, appears to be among the major destination of migrants in Europe, following Germany, Spain and France with 7,287,980, 3,371,394 and 3,263,186 immigrants respectively and just before Great Britain with 2,857,000 immigrants. Using the available statistical data, disaggregated at national, regional and provincial level, it will be possible to have an overall picture of the phenomenon described above and to compare the Italian case with the events in the other European countries. In this way we can have a better understanding of the process underlying migration in order to identify future scenarios
    Keywords: International Migration; Europe; Italy
    JEL: F22 O15 N30
    Date: 2007–11

This nep-mig issue is ©2008 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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