nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2008‒11‒25
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Cultural Differences in the Remittance Behaviour of Households: Evidence from Canadian Micro Data By Don J. DeVoretz; Florin P. Vadean
  2. Patterns and Determinants of International Migration in Northern Albania By Meyer, W.; Moellers, J.; Buchenrieder, G.
  3. Migration impact on Moroccan unemployment : a static computable general equilibrium analysis. By Fida Karam; Bernard Decaluwé
  4. Worker remittances, migration, accumulation and growth in poor developing countries By Ziesemer, Thomas
  5. Global Migration of the Highly Skilled: A Tentative and Quantitative Approach By Dunnewijk, Theo
  6. Social Networks in Determining Migration and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from the German Reunification By Helmut Rainer; Thomas Siedler
  7. Is It Your Foreign Name or Foreign Qualifications? An Experimental Study of Ethnic Discrimination in Hiring By Carlsson, Magnus; Rooth, Dan-Olof

  1. By: Don J. DeVoretz; Florin P. Vadean
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effect of cultural differences amongst ethnic groups on the remittance behaviour of native and immigrant households in Canada. In contrast to the New Economic of Labour Migration (NELM) literature that examines remittance motivation in the framework of extended family agreements, we embed remittances in a formal demand system, suggesting that they represent expenditures on social relations with relatives and/or friends and contribute to membership in social/religious organizations respectively. The results indicate strong ethnic group cultural differences in the remittance behaviour of recent Asian immigrant households and highlight the importance of differentiating with respect to cultural background when analysing the determinants of remittances.
    Keywords: International Migration; Household Behaviour; Remittances
    JEL: C31 D12 F22 F24
    Date: 2008–11
  2. By: Meyer, W.; Moellers, J.; Buchenrieder, G.
    Abstract: The European Union (EU) is the main source of remittances world wide and Albania, struck by abject poverty, is Europe€ٳ number one country sending out migrants. Albania€ٳ economy as well as its households€٠ welfare strongly depend on remittances. Consequently, the topic of migration is cutting-edge for EU and Albanian policy makers. Thus, up-to-date information is decisive for taking effective policy measures. This poster paper aims at making a fruitful contribution to understanding the varied context of migration in Albania. It presents recent data on socio-economic characteristics of households with absent family members. A binary logistic regression is employed to identfy determinants of participation in international migration in Northern Albania.
    Keywords: Albania, migration, remittances, Labor and Human Capital,
    Date: 2008
  3. By: Fida Karam (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne - Paris School of Economics); Bernard Decaluwé (Laval University)
    Abstract: Recently, much research interest is directed towards the impact of migration on the sending country. However, we think that this literature does not successfully analyse the effects of migration on unemployment and wage rates especially in urban areas. It studies the effect of one king of migration flow, mainly international migration, on labour market in the country of origin and shows that international migration is able to reduce the unemployment rate and/or raise the wage rates. However, it is common to find labour markets affected simultaneously by inflows and outflows of workers. Using a detailed CGE model applied to the Moroccan economy, we show that if we take simultaneously into account Moroccan emigration to the European Union, immigration from Sub-Saharan Africa into Moroccan urban areas and rural-urban migration, the impact on Moroccan urban labour market disaggregated by professional categories is ambiguous.
    Keywords: Imperfect labor market, migration, computable general equilibrium model.
    JEL: D24 F14 F0 D92
    Date: 2008–04
  4. By: Ziesemer, Thomas (UNU-MERIT, and Maastricht University)
    Abstract: The impact of migration and worker remittances on literacy, accumulation of capital and growth is analyzed for a panel of countries with per capita income below $1200 (2000). We estimate regressions for dynamic equations of migration, worker remittances, savings, investment, tax revenues, public expenditure on education, interest rates, literacy, labour force growth, development aid and GDP per capita growth, using dynamic panel data methods. The estimated equations are then integrated to a dynamic system that allows for simulations using the whole integrated system allowing conceptually for the open economy aspects aid, trade, capital movements and migration. The linear-quadratic impact of the income difference between rich and poor countries on remittances and migration generates some highly non-linear results in the baseline simulation. Then we analyze the counterfactuals "remittances send only 50%" or "no net migration". The results for the direct effects are that emigration lowers savings and labour force growth. The total effect of net migration on GDP per capita is to increase the growth rate until 2150 and the effect on levels runs up to 7% above the baseline value. Remittances enhance savings, public expenditures on education and growth, but reduce tax revenues and emigration. These latter two effects, however, are outweighed by the indirect effect of remittances on savings, which have a strongly positive impact on tax revenues and emigration, indicating that conclusions from single equation regressions maybe misleading and indirect effects may dominate for some variables or strongly reduce the direct effects. The total effect of remittances on levels and growth rates of GDP per capita, investment and literacy are positive.
    Keywords: migration, remittances, growth, capital accumulation
    JEL: F22 F24 O15 J61
    Date: 2008
  5. By: Dunnewijk, Theo (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: Migration in a globalising world is on the increase, especially migration of the highly skilled. It is quite natural that given certain possibilities, people look for opportunities and chances to improve their lives. Especially when the better educated leave their country in large quantities to try their chances abroad it was labelled in the 1960's as "brain drain" stressing the negative welfare impact on the countries of origin (European at that time). However not always is the impact of migration negative for the country of origin and therefore "brain drain" turned into "brain gain" when it was seen from another perspective. Indeed destination as well as origin countries may profit from migrating highly skilled people. The road in the middle is called "brain strain" emphasising that out migration can be either positive or negative for the origin countries. A synthesis has been found in perceiving migration of the highly skilled in the more neutral phrase "brain circulation". Brain circulation perceives migration of the highly skilled not as an end in itself but as the start of a circular process in which everyone might be better off: in this view the knowledge worker in the age of globalisation turns into a real cosmopolite. Despite an enormous literature on migration it is impossible to draw a systematic global quantitative picture of migration of the highly skilled. Therefore discussions in terms of brain drain, brain strain or brain circulation are either theoretical or end unresolved. Empirically only a part of the picture can be drawn with the help of data on South-North migration of the highly skilled. Data on other directions of migration like South-South and North- South is not systematically covered by the international statistical institutes. Given this situation it is the aim of this paper to include as many as possible countries in the data on migration of the highly skilled in order to illustrate the major effects related to migration for human capital in origin as well as destination regions. This is possible by using UNESCO data on international students; this source facilitates estimations of the missing migration flows. The results show that countries like Russian Federation, South Africa, Ukraine, Malaysia, Jordan and Saudi Arabia are, apart from the traditional immigration countries also important destination countries for highly skilled migrants.
    Keywords: Migration, Diaspora, Highly Skilled Migrants, International Mobility, Internationally Mobile Students
    JEL: F22 J61 O15
    Date: 2008
  6. By: Helmut Rainer; Thomas Siedler
    Abstract: This paper empirically examines social network explanations for migration decisions in the context of the German reunification. Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we first show that the presence of family and friends in West Germany is an important predictor for the migration hazard rate of East Germans. We then explore whether pre-migration networks have a discernible impact on the economic and social assimilation of East German immigrants in West Germany. We find that East German immigrants are more likely to be employed, and to hold higher-paying jobs, when socially connected to the West prior to emigrating. East Germans immigrants with pre-migration networks also appear to be more integrated into their Western host communities than movers without preexisting social ties.
    Keywords: mergers and acquisitions, abnormal returns, value-ambiguity, unlisted firms, method of payment.
    JEL: C23 J61
    Date: 2008–11
  7. By: Carlsson, Magnus (Kalmar University); Rooth, Dan-Olof (Kalmar University)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the existing literature on ethnic discrimination of immigrants in hiring by addressing the central question of what employers act on in a job application. The method involved sending qualitatively identical resumes signalling belonging to different ethnic groups to firms advertising for labour. The results show that whether the applicant has a native sounding or a foreign sounding name explains approximately 77 per cent of the total gap in the probability of being invited to an interview between natives and immigrants, while having foreign qualifications only explains the remaining 23 per cent. This in turn, suggests a lower bound for statistical discrimination of approximately 23 per cent of total discrimination. The analysis indicates further that the 77 per cent are most likely driven by a mixture of preference-based and statistical discrimination.
    Keywords: statistical discrimination, ethnic discrimination, hiring, job search, preference-based discrimination, correspondence testing
    JEL: J64 J71
    Date: 2008–11

This nep-mig issue is ©2008 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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