nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2008‒10‒07
fourteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Effects of Low-Skilled Immigration on U.S. Natives: Evidence from Hurricane Mitch By Adriana Kugler; Mutlu Yuksel
  2. Determinants of choice of migration destination By Fafchamps, Marcel; Shilpi, Forhad
  3. Labor Supply Response to International Migration and Remittances in the Republic By Evans Jadotte
  4. Immigration and natives' attitudes towards the welfare state: Evidence from the European Social Survey By Claudia Senik; Holger Stichnoth; Karine Van der Straeten
  5. International Migration and the Role of Institutions By Graziella Bertocchi; Chiara Strozzi
  6. Do Attitudes Towards Immigrants Matter? By Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe
  7. Independent Children, Inconsistent Adults: International Child Migration and the Legal Framework By Jacqueline Bhabha
  8. The Transmission of Women's Fertility, Human Capital and Work Orientation Across Immigrant Generations By Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn; Albert Yung-Hsu Liu; Kerry L. Papps
  9. Race, immigration, and the U.S. labor marke t: contrasting the outcomes of foreign born and native blacks By de Walque, Damien
  10. Who is Hurt by Discimination? By Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe
  11. Gender, Source Country Characteristics and Labor Market Assimilation Among Immigrants: 1980-2000 By Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn; Kerry L. Papps
  12. Producing Difference in Organizing – Attempts to Change an Ethnic Identity into a Proffesional One By Diedrich, Andreas
  13. Poverty among minorities in the United States: Explaining the racial poverty gap for Blacks and Latinos By Carlos Gradin
  14. A comparison of the health status and health care utilisation patterns between foreigners and the national population in Spain: new evidence from the Spanish National Health Survey By Hernández Quevedo, C; Jiménez Rubio, D

  1. By: Adriana Kugler; Mutlu Yuksel (University of Houston, NBER, CEPR and IZA)
    Abstract: In the 1980s the composition of immigrants to the U.S. shifted towards less-skilled workers. Around this time, real wages and employment of younger and less-educated U.S. workers fell. Some blame recent immigration shifts for the misfortunes of unskilled workers in the U.S. OLS estimates using Census data show instead that native wages are positively related to the recent influx of Latin Americans. However, these estimates are biased if demand shocks are positively related to immigration. An IV strategy, which deals with the endogeneity of immigration by exploiting a large influx of Central American immigrants towards U.S. Southern ports of entry after Hurricane Mitch,also generates positive wage effects but only for more educated native men. Yet,ignoring the flows of native and earlier immigrants in response to this exogeneous immigration is likely to generate upward biases in these estimates too. Native wage effects disappear and less-skilled employment of previous Latin American immigrants falls when controlling for out-migration. This highlights the importance of controlling for out-migration not only of natives but also of previous immigrants in regional studies of immigration.
    Keywords: Immigration, Imperfect Substitution, Disemployment Effects, Natural Experiments, Outmigration
    JEL: J11 J21 J31 J61
    Date: 2008–09
  2. By: Fafchamps, Marcel; Shilpi, Forhad
    Abstract: Internal migration plays an important role in moderating regional differences in well-being. This paper analyzes migrants'choice of destination, using Census and Living Standard Surveys data from Nepal. The paper examines how the choice of a migration destination is influenced by income differentials, distance, population density, social proximity, and amenities. The study finds population density and social proximity to have a strong significant effect: migrants move primarily to high population density areas where many people share their language and ethnic background. Better access to amenities is significant as well. Differentials in expected income and consumption expenditures across districts are found to be relatively less important in determining migration destination choice as their effects are smaller in magnitude than those of other determinants. The results of the study suggest that an improvement in amenities (such as the availability of paved roads) at the origin could slow down out-migration substantially.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Economic Theory&Research,Transport Economics Policy&Planning,,Inequality
    Date: 2008–09–01
  3. By: Evans Jadotte (Departament d'Economia Aplicada, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona)
    Abstract: The Republic of Haiti is the prime international remittances recipient country in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region relative to its gross domestic product (GDP). The downside of this observation may be that this country is also the first exporter of skilled workers in the world by population size. The present research uses a zero-altered negative binomial (with logit inflation) to model households’ international migration decision process, and endogenous regressors’ Amemiya Generalized Least Squares method (instrumental variable Tobit, IV-Tobit) to account for selectivity and endogeneity issues in assessing the impact of remittances on labor market outcomes. Results are in line with what has been found so far in this literature in terms of a decline of labor supply in the presence of remittances. However, the impact of international remittances does not seem to be important in determining recipient households’ labor participation behavior, particularly for women.
    Keywords: Republic of Haiti, international migration, remittances, labor supply
    JEL: C39 F22 F24 J22
    Date: 2008–09
  4. By: Claudia Senik; Holger Stichnoth; Karine Van der Straeten
    Abstract: Does immigration reduce natives' support for the welfare state? Evidence from the European Social Survey (2002/2003) suggests a more qualified relation. For Europe as a whole, there is only weak evidence of a negative association between the perceived presence of immigrants and natives' support for the welfare state. However, this weak average relationship masks considerable heterogeneity across countries. We distinguish two channels through which immigration could affect natives' support for the welfare state: a pure dislike of immigrants and concerns about the economic consequences of immigration. We find (1) that people who hold both negative views about immigrants generally tend to be less supportive of income redistribution, and (2) that they become even less supportive if they perceive a high share of immigrants in the population.
    Date: 2008
  5. By: Graziella Bertocchi; Chiara Strozzi
    Abstract: We study the determinants of international migration with special attention to the role of institutional factors other than economic and demographic fundamentals. We evaluate the impact of political institutions and of those institutions specifically targeted at attracting migrants. For a dataset on 19th century migration, we find that economic and demographic differentials play a major role, but that the quality of institutions also matter. We produce evidence that both political and migration institutions represent significant factors of attraction, even after controlling for their potential endogeneity through a set of instruments exploiting colonial history and the institutions inherited from the past.
    Keywords: International Migration, Institutions, Democracy, Migration Policy, Colonial History
    JEL: F22 P16 O15
    Date: 2008–03
  6. By: Waisman, Gisela (Stockholm University Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS); Larsen, Birthe (Copenhagen Business School, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse what are the consequences of such attitudes on immigrants' welfare. A well educated immigrant from a non developed country who lives in a municipality with strong negative attitudes earns less than what she would earn if she lived in a municpality where natives are more positive. IF attitudes changed from the average level to themost positive level,her wage would increase by 12%. This would reduce the wage gap to well-educated immigrants from developed countries by 70%. We interpret this effect as evidence of labour market discrimination. The same reduction in negative attitudes would increase the welfare of immigrants from Africa and Asia, through their wage and local amenities, by an equivalent to one third of their wage. The analogous amount for immigrants from South America and East Europe is one fourth of their wage if they are well educated and one tenth otherwise.
    Keywords: wages; attitudes; immigrants; mobility; amenities
    JEL: J15 J31 J61 J71
    Date: 2008–10–01
  7. By: Jacqueline Bhabha
    Abstract: Like adults, children migrate across borders for different reasons and in varying circumstances; and they face legal consequences as a result of their migration. Two of these consequences are common to all child migrants and have far-reaching implications: the child migrants become non-citizens or aliens once they cross a border, and they face a new social environment once they leave home. The existing legal framework does not directly address either of these consequences. Domestic child protection law, which addresses the problems facing children without satisfactory homes, does not often cover issues of foreign citizenship, including the risk of deportation and lack of entitlement to social benefits that non-citizen children can face. And migration law, which establishes the parameters of lawful status for recognized categories of migrant, does not deal with the needs and circumstances of most children who travel independently of their families. However, international law has long recognized the distinctive needs of some groups of child migrants. In the Declaration on the Rights of the Child, adopted by the League of Nations in 1924, the first ever international child rights declaration, two of the five principles articulated define rights relevant to child migrants: (1) the primacy of the child’s right to relief in times of distress (a precursor to attention to the special needs of refugee children) and (2) the imperative of protection for exploited children (prefiguring concern with child trafficking). More recent regional and domestic legislation regulating immigration has included provisions promoting family unity and by implication the migration of children with or to join their adult relatives. A broader engagement with the many other aspects of child migration however has been absent. There is no single piece of international or regional legislation that systematically and comprehensively addresses the issue. As a result the body of relevant legislation, though quite extensive and diverse, has an impact on child migrants which is inconsistent and incomplete.
    Keywords: international bill of human rights; migrant children; migration law;
    JEL: K33
    Date: 2008
  8. By: Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn; Albert Yung-Hsu Liu; Kerry L. Papps
    Abstract: Using 1995-2006 Current Population Survey and 1970-2000 Census data, we study the intergenerational transmission of fertility, human capital and work orientation of immigrants to their US-born children. We find that second-generation women's fertility and labor supply are significantly positively affected by the immigrant generation's fertility and labor supply respectively, with the effect of mother's fertility and labor supply larger than that of women from the father's source country. The second generation's education levels are also significantly positively affected by that of their parents, with a stronger effect of father's than mother's education. Second-generation women's schooling levels are negatively affected by immigrant fertility, suggesting a quality-quantity tradeoff for immigrant families. We find higher transmission rates for immigrant fertility to the second generation than we do for labor supply or education: after one generation, 40-65% of any immigrant excess fertility will remain, but only 12-18 % of any immigrant annual hours shortfall and 18-36% of any immigrant educational shortfall. These results suggest a considerable amount of assimilation across generations toward native levels of schooling and labor supply, although fertility effects show more persistence.
    JEL: J1 J16 J22 J24 J61
    Date: 2008–10
  9. By: de Walque, Damien
    Abstract: It is generally expected that immigrants do not fare as well as the native-born in the U.S. labor market. The literature also documents that Blacks experience lower labor market outcomes than Whites. This paper innovates by studying the interaction between race and immigration. The study compares the labor market outcomes of four racial groups in the United States (Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics) interacted with their foreign born status, using the Integrated Public Use Micro Data Series data for the 2000 Census. Among women and for labor market outcomes such as labor force participation, employment, and personal income, the foreign born are doing worse than the native born from the same racial background, with the exception of Blacks. Among men, for labor force participation and employment, foreign-born Blacks are doing better than native Blacks. The paper tests different possible explanations for this"reversal"of the advantage of natives over immigrants among Blacks. It considers citizenship, ability in English, age at and time since arrival in the United States, as well as neighborhood effects, but concludes that none of these channels explains or modifies the observed reversal.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Labor Policies,Race in Society,Population Policies,Educational Policy and Planning
    Date: 2008–10–01
  10. By: Waisman, Gisela (Stockholm University Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS); Larsen, Birthe (Copenhagen Business School, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The effects of discrimination of immigrants on the labour market are studied within a search and wage-bargaining setting including a risk of losing skills during the experience of unemployment. The negative effects of discrimination in the form of higher unemployment and lower wages spread to all workers, immigrants and natives, in all sectors of the economy. The effect is stronger for immigrants, but natives also suffer. An increase in the share of immigrants in the economy exacerbates the problems of discrimination.
    Keywords: discrimination; unemployment; search; matching; wages
    JEL: J15 J31 J61 J64 J71
    Date: 2008–10–01
  11. By: Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn; Kerry L. Papps
    Abstract: We use 1980, 1990 and 2000 Census data to study the impact of source country characteristics on the labor supply assimilation profiles of married adult immigrant women and men. Women migrating from countries where women have high relative labor force participation rates work substantially more than women coming from countries with lower relative female labor supply rates, and this gap is roughly constant with time in the United States. These differences are substantial and hold up even when we control for wage offers and family formation decisions, as well as when we control for the emigration rate from the United States to the source country. Men's labor supply assimilation profiles are unaffected by source country female labor supply, a result that suggests that the female findings reflect notions of gender roles rather than overall work orientation. Findings for another indicator of traditional gender roles, source country fertility rates, are broadly similar, with substantial and persistent negative effects of source country fertility on the labor supply of female immigrants except when we control for presence of children, in which case the negative effects only become evident after ten years in the United States.
    JEL: J16 J22 J24 J61
    Date: 2008–10
  12. By: Diedrich, Andreas (Gothenburg Research Institute)
    Abstract: This paper reports how municipalities, state agencies and other organizations working with the induction of newly-arrived immigrants in Sweden cooperate in establishing a system for assessing the immigrants’ competencies and qualifications (validation). Among the various practices involved in this “management of difference”, one consists in an active casting of immigrants. While such casting is not necessarily problematic, the results of Swedish validation programs have been described by practitioners, policy makers and researchers alike as somewhat disappointing with regard to getting people into employment quicker or integrating them better into society. Some of the shortcomings may be explained by the fact that the efforts to remove inequality involve the categorization of the newly-arrived immigrants as having an “upsetting identity”; they could not be easily identified in relationship to what was considered as the Swedish norm. Instead of finding out what the immigrants could do, the assessment activities concentrated on demonstrating what they will not be able to do in a Swedish context.
    Keywords: difference; identity; classification; immigrants; organizing
    Date: 2008–10–02
  13. By: Carlos Gradin (Universidade de Vigo)
    Abstract: The two largest minorities in the United States, African Americans and people of Hispanic origin, show official poverty rates that are at least twice as high as those among non-Hispanic Whites. These similarly high poverty rates among minorities are, however, the result of different combinations of factors, due to the specific characteristics of these two groups. In this paper, we analyze the role of demographic and labor-related variables in explaining the current differential in poverty rates among racial and ethnic groups in the United States and its recent evolution. Our results show, first, that these differentials were largely explained by differing family characteristics of the ethnic groups. Furthermore, we show that while labor market activity of family members and a preponderance of single mothers played a more significant role in explaining the higher poverty rates of Blacks, a larger number of dependent children is more closely associated with higher poverty among Latinos, who also suffer from a larger educational attainment gap and higher immigration rates. Finally, we show that both racial poverty gaps declined during the 1990s, and, in the case of Latinos, the downward trend has continued through the present decade. This reduction in the differentials was fully explained by characteristics, mainly the labor market performance of family heads, while the unexplained differential (conditional racial poverty gap) proved to be more persistent across time.
    Keywords: poverty, gap, race, decomposition, Oaxaca-Blinder, United States, CPS, labor market, participation, education, family characteristics.
    JEL: D31 D63 J15 J82 O15
    Date: 2008
  14. By: Hernández Quevedo, C; Jiménez Rubio, D
    Abstract: The reduction of inequalities in health and in the access to health services is one of the main objectives in any health care system. Various studies have analysed the existence of inequalities in health and in the use of health care for the Spanish population. However, the empirical evidence for the immigrant collective on this issue is as yet insufficient. This working paper aims to provide evidence on inequalities in health and in the access to health services for the immigrant population living in Spain, relative to that of the autochthonous population, by using the 2003 and 2006 Spanish National Health Survey. After using a pooled ordered probit for a measure of self-assessed health and pooled probit models for several utilisation variables, our results show that there are different patterns in health status and utilisation of health care between nationals and immigrants in Spain. Immigrants report better levels of health status than Spaniards, although they face barriers of entry to health care services. Health policies should focus on reducing legal, cultural and administrative barriers to access health services.
    Keywords: health care utilisation, health limitations, inequalities, immigrants, Spain
    JEL: I12 C21
    Date: 2008–09

This nep-mig issue is ©2008 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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