nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2008‒06‒13
eleven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Refugee movements and aid responsiveness By Mathias Czaika; Amy Mayer
  2. Civil conflict and displacement Village‐level determinants of forced migration in Aceh By Mathias Czaika; Krisztina Kis-Katos
  3. Optimal quota for sector-specific immigration By Karin Mayr
  4. Skills Distribution, Migration and Wage Dierences in Pure Service-Exchange Economy By Gupta, Abhay
  5. Remittances and Subjective Welfare in a Mixed-Motives Model: Evidence from Fiji By Richard P.C. Brown; Eliana V. Jimenez
  6. Remittances and Poverty Nexus: Evidence from Pakistan By Kalim, Rukhsana; Shahbaz, Muhammad
  7. Cities and Growth: In Situ Versus Migratory Human Capital Growth By Beckstead, Desmond; Brown, W. Mark; Newbold, Bruce
  8. Wage Convergence and Inequality after Unification : (East) Germany in Transition By Johannes Gernandt; Friedhelm Pfeiffer
  9. The Labour Market Impact of Immigration in Western Germany in the 1990's By Francesco D'Amuri; Gianmarco Ottaviano; Giovanni Peri
  10. Migrant Women and Youth: The Challenge of Labour Market Integration By Gudrun Biffl
  11. Globalization, 1870-1914 By Guillaume Daudin; Matthias Morys; Kevin H. O'Rourke

  1. By: Mathias Czaika; Amy Mayer (Department of International Economic Policy, University of Freiburg)
    Abstract: This article analyses the impact of refugee migration movements on the long-term and short-term aid allocation decisions of bilateral donors. We distinguish between different types of forced migrants: internally displaced persons (IDPs) that stay in their country of origin, cross-border refugees that flee to neighboring countries, and asylum seekers in Western donor states. For the period 1992 to 2003, empirical evidence on 18 donor and 148 recipient countries suggests that short-term emergency aid is given to all types of refugee situations, but is predominantly directed towards the countries of origin. For the allocation of long-term development aid, donor states focus even more on the sending-countries of forced migrants; in general, they increase aid volumes only for the home countries of refugees, not for the hosting countries. This preference for the countries of origin is even stronger when these are sendingcountries of asylum seekers to the Western aid-giving states.
    Keywords: Bilateral aid allocation, refugee movements
    Date: 2008–04
  2. By: Mathias Czaika; Krisztina Kis-Katos (Department of International Economic Policy, University of Freiburg)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of displacement behavior based on various push and pull factors at the village level. The study concentrates on changes in village population during three years of civil conflict (1999-2002) in Aceh, Indonesia. The empirical analysis is based on a unique dataset from two census rounds of the Indonesian Village Potential Census (PODES). It uses data on around 5200 Acehnese villages and relates village level population change to conflict variables, geographic patterns and traditional socio-economic determinants of migration. By applying quantile regressions, the push (outflow) factors and the pull (inflow) determinants of migration can also be distinguished. We identify the following factors as the main determinants of the Aceh migration pattern in this period: First, conflict clashes induced large rearrangements of the population between villages in highly affected districts, as well as strong village emigration from the geographically remote regions in Central Aceh towards the less conflict-affected coastal industrial areas. Besides conflict factors, an (ongoing) rural-urban migration process, driven by socio-economic factors has taken place during the conflict period. Second, there is also evidence that security considerations, such as the presence of police in a village or neighborhood, were either emigration-reducing or immigration-inducing. Third, although the presence of ethnic-Javanese has not been a primary cause of conflict incidence, their intimidation by the rebel movement has led to a significant outflow, primarily from conflict-affected villages in Central Aceh. These results reveal that, beside a conflict-induced fear of violence, population movements in Aceh have also been an outcome of traditional migration determinants.
    Date: 2008–04
  3. By: Karin Mayr (Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)
    Abstract: Sectoral labor supply shortage is a cause of concern in many OECD countries and has raised support for immigration as a potential remedy. In this paper, we derive a general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, where natives require a compensating wage differential for working in one sector rather than in another. We identify price and wage effects of immigration on three different groups of natives: the young working in one of two sectors and the old. We determine the outcome of a majority vote on immigration into a given sector as well as the social optimum. The main findings are that i) the old determine the majority voting outcome of positive immigration into both sectors, if natives are not mobile across sectors, ii) the young determine the majority voting outcome of zero immigration into both sectors, if natives are mobile across sectors, iii) the social optimum is smaller than or equal to the majority voting outcome, and iv) sector-specific immigration is not always a substitute for native mobility across sectors.
    Keywords: immigration, political economy, welfare, sectoral mobility
    JEL: F22 J31 J61
    Date: 2008–05
  4. By: Gupta, Abhay
    Abstract: This paper considers an economy with skilled agents exchanging their services. Using Cobb-Douglas preferences, the paper shows that there exists an optimal (average welfare maximizing) skills' distribution. This optimal distribution is independent of productivity and is welfare equalizing. If the skill-distribution is not optimal, then some agents are better-off than others. In such a scenario, migration in some sectors is average-welfare improving while inviting skilled-agents in others reduces average welfare. "Productivity increase of worse-o sector" without changing the overall skills' composition of economy increases the wage gap.
    JEL: F22 L84 J31 J24 D51
    Date: 2007–06
  5. By: Richard P.C. Brown; Eliana V. Jimenez (School of Economics, The University of Queensland)
    Abstract: To analyze migrants’ remittance motivations we extend the mixed-motives model of private transfers developed by Cox et al (2004), incorporating subjectively-assessed recipient welfare. We test the model with customized survey data from Fiji, finding evidence supportive of altruism for households below a subjective threshold level, indicating that international migrants’ remittances provide important social protection coverage to households where formal social protection systems are lacking.Unlike previous studies, we also find a positive, exchange-motivated relationship for those above the threshold. The conventional linear model applied to the same sample uncovers neither relationship. We conclude that either crowding-out or crowding-in of remittances can occur when recipients’ welfare improves, depending on the household’s pre-transfer welfare level. The net effects of recipients’ welfare improvements on remittances, and the effects of remittances on poverty alleviation and income distribution, are consequently more complex and ambiguous than previous studies suggest.
    Date: 2008
  6. By: Kalim, Rukhsana; Shahbaz, Muhammad
    Abstract: Remittances play a very important role in eliminating poverty of a nation. Remittances it is believed increase the money supply and stimulate demand for consumption and investment. The basic objective of the present paper is to explore the various factors affecting poverty with particular emphasis on the relationship between poverty and foreign remittances. It is hypothesized that remittances, trade openness, GDP growth, inflation, urbanization and tax rates are the possible variables affecting poverty. The remittances-poverty nexus is tested both for the short-run as well as for the long-run. Fully modified ordinary least square (FMOL) technique is used for establishing short-run and long-run relationship between poverty and its determinants. The period selected is from 1973-2006. Results support hypothesis that remittances bring a decline in poverty.
    JEL: B22
    Date: 2007–09–24
  7. By: Beckstead, Desmond; Brown, W. Mark; Newbold, Bruce
    Abstract: University degree holders in large cities are more prevalent and are growing at a more rapid pace than in smaller cities and rural areas. This relatively high rate of growth stems from net migratory flows and/or higher rates of degree attainment in cities. Using data from the 1996 and 2001 Censuses, this paper tests the relative importance of these two sources of human capital growth by decomposing degree-holder growth across cities into net migratory flows (domestic and foreign) and in situ growth: that is, growth resulting from higher rates of degree attainment among the resident populations of cities. We find that both sources are important, with in situ growth being the more dominant force. Hence, it is less the ability of cities to attract human capital than their ability to generate it that underlies the high rates of degree attainment we observe across city populations.
    Keywords: Education, training and learning, Business performance and ownership, Population and demography, Educational attainment, Regional and urban profiles, Mobility and migration
    Date: 2008–06–02
  8. By: Johannes Gernandt; Friedhelm Pfeiffer
    Abstract: This paper investigates the wage convergence between East German workers and their West German counterparts after reunification. Our research is based on a comparison of three groups of workers defined as stayers, migrants and commuters to West Germany, who lived in East Germany in 1989, with groups of West German statistical twin workers, all taken from the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). According to our findings, wage convergence for stayers is roughly 75 percent and for commuters 85 percent. Wages of migrants to West Germany equal the ones of their West German statistical twins. We conclude that labor markets in East and West Germany are still characterized by wage differences but that the degree of inequality in both regions converged.
    Keywords: Wage convergence, wage inequality, German unification, migration, commuting
    JEL: J31 J30 J61
    Date: 2008
  9. By: Francesco D'Amuri (Institute for Social and Economic Research); Gianmarco Ottaviano (Università di Bologna); Giovanni Peri (University of California)
    Abstract: We adopt a general equilibrium approach in order to measure the effects of recent immigration on the Western German labour market, looking at both wage and employment effects. Using the Regional File of the IAB Employment Subsample for the period 1987-2001, we find that the substantial immigration of the 1990’s had no adverse effects on native wages and employment levels. It had instead adverse employment and wage effects on previous waves of immigrants. This stems from the fact that, after controlling for education and experience levels, native and migrant workers appear to be imperfect substitutes whereas new and old immigrants exhibit perfect substitutability. Our analysis suggests that if the German labour market were as ‘flexible’ as the UK labour market, it would be more efficient in dealing with the effects of immigration.
    Keywords: employment, immigration, wages
    Date: 2008–04
  10. By: Gudrun Biffl (WIFO)
    Abstract: The integration of migrant women and youth into the labour market depends upon institutional ramifications (in particular the immigration regime, the welfare model and the education system), on supply factors (in particular the educational attainment level and occupational skills, language competence, ethnic origin and the proximity to the ethnic cultural identity of the host country), and demand factors (in particular the composition by economic sectors, the division of work between the household, the informal and the market sector and the economic and technological development level).
    Keywords: Migrants, immigration policy, Gender gaps, welfare models, foreign born, citizenship, third country origin, second generation, education system, labour market integration
    Date: 2008–05–21
  11. By: Guillaume Daudin; Matthias Morys; Kevin H. O'Rourke
    Abstract: This paper surveys the causes and consequences of late 19th century globalization, as well as the anti-globalization backlash of that period.
    Keywords: Trade, Migration, Capital Flows, History
    JEL: N73 N33 N23
    Date: 2008

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