nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2008‒02‒23
ten papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Do immigrants cause crime? By Milo Bianchi; Paolo Buonanno; Paolo Pinotti
  2. The labor market experience and impact of undocumented workers By Julie L. Hotchkiss; Myriam Quispe-Agnoli
  3. Borders of everyday life: Congolese young people's political identification in contexts of conflict-induced displacement By Christina R. Clark
  4. Where Do the Brainy Italians Go? By Amelie Constant; Elena D'Agosto
  5. The Ethnic Composition of US Inventors By William R. Kerr
  6. Ethnic Scientific Communities and International Technology Diffusion By William R. Kerr
  7. Remittances, consumption and investment in Ghana By Page, John; Cuecuecha, Alfredo; Adams, Jr., Richard H.
  8. The Substitutability of Labor between Immigrants and Natives in the Canadian Labor Market: Circa 1995 By Asadul, Islam
  9. Skilled Immigration and Wages in Australia By Islam, Asadul; Fausten, Dietrich
  10. Labor Migration: Macroeconomic and Demographic Outlook for Europe and Neighborhood Regions By Vladimir Borgy; Xavier Chojnicki

  1. By: Milo Bianchi; Paolo Buonanno; Paolo Pinotti
    Abstract: In this paper we examine the empirical relationship between immigration and crime across Italian provinces during the period 1990-2003. Drawing on police administrative data, we first document that the size of immigrant population is positively correlated with the incidence of most types of crime, as well as with the overall number of criminal offenses. However, using changes of immigrant population in other European countries to identify exogenous shifts of immigrant population in Italy, the causal effect seems limited to some categories of crime: murders, robberies and, to a lesser extent, thefts.
    Date: 2008
  2. By: Julie L. Hotchkiss; Myriam Quispe-Agnoli
    Abstract: Using administrative data from the state of Georgia, the authors find that a greater share of undocumented workers in an industry has a statistically significant negative impact on the wages of documented workers. The practical impact, however, is small, given the size of the undocumented workforce. In addition, undocumented workers have significantly lower labor supply elasticity, likely as a result of their limited employment and grievance opportunities. Furthermore, the inflow of undocumented workers does more to displace earlier hired undocumented workers than it does to displace documented workers.
    Date: 2008
  3. By: Christina R. Clark (St Paul University)
    Abstract: Ethnicity and citizenship issues have been among the contributing causes of conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) over the past decades. These identity issues are exacerbated by the large-scale migration of people to and from the DRC and neighbouring Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda, both historically and in the context of recent political violence. Using ethnographic data collected over a 15-month period, this paper explores Congolese young people’s self-identification vis-à-vis ethnicity and citizenship discourses in Kampala and Kyaka II refugee settlement, Uganda. In particular, research findings highlight the conceptual and practical implications of the territorialisation of ‘tribe’ and citizenship for migrants; the consequent conflation of ethnicity and nationality in migration contexts; a reinforced notion and assertion of ‘Congoleseness’ among refugee populations, even when this creates conflict with Ugandans; and, migrants’ limited opportunities for formal political participation. Understanding this political context from which Congolese refugees have fled, and to which they are returning and will return, is important in anticipating the peace and conflict implications of current Congolese migrations.
    Date: 2008–01
  4. By: Amelie Constant; Elena D'Agosto
    Abstract: This paper studies the major determinants that affect the country choice of the talented Italian scientists and researchers who have at least a bachelor's from Italy and live abroad. There are three alternative country choices: the US/Canada, the UK, and other EU countries. On average, the brainy Italians exhibit a higher predicted probability to go to the US. Ceteris paribus, both push and pull factors are important. While having a Ph.D. from outside Italy predicts the UK choice, having extra working experience from outside Italy predicts migration to other EU countries. Those who stay abroad temporarily for two to four years are definitely more likely to go to the UK. Specialization in the fields of humanities, social sciences, and health are strong determinants of migration to the UK. For the move to the US, while the humanities area is a significant deterrent, health is a positive deciding factor. Lack of funds in Italy constitutes a significant push to the US.
    Keywords: Brain drain, skilled migration, Italy, push-pull factors
    JEL: J61 J24 F22
    Date: 2008
  5. By: William R. Kerr (Harvard Business School, Entrepreneurial Management Unit)
    Abstract: The ethnic composition of US scientists and engineers is undergoing a significant transformation. This study applies an ethnic-name database to individual patent records granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office to document these trends with greater detail than previously available. Most notably, the contributions of Chinese and Indian scientists to US technology formation increase dramatically in the 1990s, before noticeably leveling off after 2000 and declining in the case of India. Growth in ethnic innovation is concentrated in high-tech sectors; the institutional and geographic dimensions are further characterized.
    Keywords: Innovation, Research and Development, Patents, Scientists, Engineers, Inventors, Ethnicity, Immigration.
    JEL: F15 F22 J44 J61 O31
    Date: 2007–08
  6. By: William R. Kerr (Harvard Business School, Entrepreneurial Management Unit)
    Abstract: This study explores the importance of knowledge transfer for international technology diffusion by examining ethnic scientific and entrepreneurial communities in the US and their ties to their home countries. US ethnic research communities are quantified by applying an ethnic-name database to individual patent records. International patent citations con.rm knowledge diffuses through ethnic networks, and manufacturing output in foreign countries increases with an elasticity of 0.1-0.3 to stronger scientific integration with the US frontier. To address reverse-causality concerns, reduced-form specifications exploit exogenous changes in US immigration quotas. Consistent with a model of sector reallocation, output growth in less developed economies is facilitated by employment gains, while more advanced economies experience sharper increases in labor productivity. The ethnic transfer mechanism is especially strong in high-tech industries and among Chinese economies. The findings suggest channels for transferring codified and tacit knowledge partly shape the effective technology frontiers of developing and emerging economies.
    Keywords: Technology Transfer, Tacit Knowledge, Productivity, Patents, Innovation, Research and Development, Entrepreneurship, Immigration, Networks.
    JEL: F22 J44 J61 O31 O32 O33 O41 O57
    Date: 2005–11
  7. By: Page, John; Cuecuecha, Alfredo; Adams, Jr., Richard H.
    Abstract: This paper uses a new, nationally-representative household survey from Ghana to analyze wit hin a rigorous econometric framework how the receipt of internal remittances (from within Ghana) and international remittances (from African or other countries) affects the marginal spending behavior of households on a broad range of consumption and investment goods, including food, education and housing. Contrary to other studies, which find that remittances are spent disproportionately on consumption (food and consumer goods/durables) or investment goods (education and housing), the findings show that households receiving remittances in Ghana do not spend more at the margin on food, education and housing than households with similar income levels and characteristics that do not receive remittances. When the analysis controls for endogeneity and selection bias, the findings show that any differences in the marginal spending behavior between remittance-receiving and non-receiving households are explained completely by the observed and unobserved characteristics of households. Households in Ghana treat remittances just like any other source of income, and there are no changes in marginal spending patterns for households with the receipt of remittance income.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Access to Finance,Debt Markets,Remittances,
    Date: 2008–02–01
  8. By: Asadul, Islam
    Abstract: This paper examines the substitutability or complementarity between Canadian-born and immigrant workers. These are examined by estimating a set of wage equations using a Generalized Leontief Production Function. The paper finds that, in general, there is no displacement of Canadian-born workers by immigrants. Recent immigrants affect the native-born positively, while older immigrants are neither substitute nor complement for natives. However, the effects differ across industries. Overall the evidence that immigrants harm the opportunities of native-born workers is scant.
    Keywords: Immigration; substitutability; complementarity; displacement
    JEL: C39 J6
    Date: 2008–02–15
  9. By: Islam, Asadul; Fausten, Dietrich
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of the relative growth of skilled migration on the structure of Australian wages. Unlike conventional approaches, the present study uses macro data to examine the response of wages to immigration flows. We use instrumental variable (IV) techniques to deal with the potential endogeneity of immigration. Results from alternative estimation strategies support the many prevailing empirical findings. There is no robust evidence that a relative increase in skilled immigrants exerts discernible adverse consequences on the wage structure in Australia.
    Keywords: Immigration; wage; endogeneity; instrumental variable.
    JEL: J61
    Date: 2008–02–14
  10. By: Vladimir Borgy; Xavier Chojnicki
    Abstract: In this paper, we assess the demographic and economic consequences of migrations in Europe and neighborhood countries. In order to do so, we rely on a multi-region world overlapping generations model (INGENUE2). The rich modeling framework of this multi-regions model allows us to put into connection migration with the "triangular" relationship between population aging, pension reforms and international capital markets. With this model, we are also able to quantify the demographic and economic consequences of migration flows on both the regions receiving and losing migrants. Our analysis is based on a very detailed migration scenario between Western Europe and the Neighborhood regions constructed by taking into account both the current situation and some prospective empirical scenarios. Our quantitative results shed some light on the long term consequences of migration on regions that are not at the same stage in the ageing process. Concerning the regions receiving migrants, despite some improvement of their public pension system, it appears that a realistic migration scenario does not offset the effect of ageing in these regions, leaving room for pension reforms. Concerning the regions losing migrants, the adverse economic consequences of emigration appear to be all the more important than the region is advanced in the ageing process (and is already suffering from a declining population).
    Keywords: CGEM; migration; international capital flows; neighborhood policy; INGENUE; capital movements; demoeconomics; demography
    JEL: F21 C68 J61 H55 J11
    Date: 2007–12

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