nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2007‒12‒08
five papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Optimal discretion in asylum lawmaking. By Jenny Monheim; Marie Obidzinski
  2. Determinants and Impacts of Migration in Vietnam By Nguyen Thi Thu Phuong; Tran Ngo Minh Tam; Remco Oostendorp; Nguyen Thi Nguyet
  3. Analysis of International Migration and its Impacts on Developing Countries By Paola Barrientos
  4. Remittances, Business Cycles and Poverty: The Recent Turkish Experience By Sayan, Serdar; Tekin-Koru, Ayca
  5. Enlargement in perspective: The EU’s quest for identity By Helene Sjursen

  1. By: Jenny Monheim; Marie Obidzinski
    Abstract: This paper studies whether refugee law should be centralized, how it should be centralized, and what are the consequences for migrants seeking protection as well as for host countries. Jurisdictions face different refugee in ows. We show that the resulting varying levels of strictness of the eligibility criteria create a legal externality which leads to a "race to the bottom", or a toughening, of asylum standards. They are stricter than the Pareto efficient level. To solve this problem, we consider two forms of harmonization: fixed and minimum standards. We find no proof that either type would lead to a better result for the member countries than national asylum law making. However, the system of minimum standards is clearly best for refugees, and that it is and better than total harmonization for both host countries.
    Keywords: competition in law making, asylum law, European law, human rights.
    JEL: K33 H11 D61 D62
    Date: 2007
  2. By: Nguyen Thi Thu Phuong (Centre for Analysis and Forecasting, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences); Tran Ngo Minh Tam (Centre for Analysis and Forecasting, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences); Remco Oostendorp (Free University, Amsterdam); Nguyen Thi Nguyet (Central Institute for Economic Management (CIEM), Vietnam)
    Abstract: <p>This chapter * uses the recent Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey 2004 to analyze the determinants and impacts of migration in Vietnam. Most of the previous studies on the determinants and impacts of migration have focused on destination rather than origin areas of migration. This limits our understanding of the determinants of migration and also does not provide evidence on important impacts of migration such as on household inequality in origin areas.</p><p>In terms of determinants of migration, the study shows that migration is a highly selective process and strongly affected by household and commune characteristics, although differently across type of migration and across urban and rural areas. We do find evidence for the existence of a 'migration hump' for economic long-term migration, with an inverted Ushape in the probability of migration with respect to per capita expenditures. The presence of non-farm employment opportunities does reduce short-term migration but not long-term out-migration for economic reasons.</p> <p>In terms of impacts the study analyzes the impact of migration on household expenditures and household inequality. Migration is found to have a strong positive impact on household expenditures but increases the Gini coefficient of per capita household expenditures from 0.38 to 0.42 in origin areas compared to the no-migration case.</p>
    Keywords: Migration; Vietnam; Household
    Date: 2007
  3. By: Paola Barrientos (Department of Economics, University of Aarhus)
    Abstract: This paper provides a review of the literature on the reasons and consequences of international migration. The principal determinants of migration are analyzed and it is seen that educated people from developing countries are more likely to migrate for several reasons (i.e. network determinants, costs of moving, pull factors and push factors). Looking into the empirical data, the global trend is that emigration of educated people (usually called “brain drain”) has increased a lot. This trend implies that industrialized countries are importing highly skilled people from developing countries and this will certainly have important consequences for developing countries in the long run. Some researchers argue that developing countries will loose, since the most qualified people leave and stop contributing to their country. Others say that the global trend can be beneficial because positive spillovers will be created; in the sense that developing countries will experience higher investments in human capital (“brain gain”). Empirical findings show that these spillovers depend on the probability to migrate and the stock of human capital that a country has. Finally another group of researchers argues that this process is inevitable, and barriers to migration should be abolished in order to reap the benefits for both sending and receiving countries as well as the migrants themselves.
    Keywords: Migration, Brain Drain, Brain Gain
    JEL: F22 O15
    Date: 2007–11
  4. By: Sayan, Serdar; Tekin-Koru, Ayca
    Abstract: We investigate whether remittances sent to Turkey by Turkish workers living in Germany are countercyclical or procyclical with Turkish and German national outputs and discuss the possible reasons underlying the resulting patterns and their implications. We also take up a previously unexplored issue and discuss poverty alleviation potential of remittances at a macroeconomic level by examining the statistical properties of any co-movements between remittances cycles and cycles in consumption spending on food and durable goods in Turkey. Our results reveal that the real remittance flows from Germany to Turkey move procyclically with the real output in Turkey, and are primarily driven by (largely independent of) the developments in the Turkish economy (German economy). We also find that remittances cycles remain procyclical to the consumption cycles throughout our sample period. This direct co-movement between the two cycles becomes synchronous, however, only after a phase shift occurring around 1992, pointing to the increasing role of the level of economic activity in Turkey as the leading determinant of remittance receipts from Germany and the declining strength of consumption smoothing motive over time. Our results all together point out a low potential for remittances sent from Germany to reduce poverty in Turkey, at least as far as the past fifteen years are concerned.
    Keywords: Remittances; International migration; Business cycles and poverty.
    JEL: F22 E32 I32 F24
    Date: 2007
  5. By: Helene Sjursen
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to shed light on the identity problem of the European Union (EU). In order to do so the EU’s justifications of past and present enlargements are investigated. What kind of understanding of the EU do decisions to enlarge speak to? Given that the EU is based on more than pragmatic problem-solving, the question is whether decisions to enlarge reflect a value-based or rather a rights-based polity. Although a certain sense of distinctiveness, certain elements of European particularities, are in evidence, the pull of universal principles has so far turned out to be stronger.
    Keywords: democracy; enlargement; European identity; identity; legitimacy
    Date: 2007–11–15

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