nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2007‒11‒17
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Holiday Destinations: Understanding the Travel Choices of Irish By Seán Lyons; Karen Mayor; Richard S.J. Tol
  2. The Political-Economy Positive Role of the Social Security System in Sustaining Immigration (But Not Vice Versa) By Edith Sand; Assaf Razin
  3. Acculturation Identity and Educational Attainment By Nekby, Lena; Rödin, Magnus; Özcan, Gülay
  4. Globalization and Labor Market Integration in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Asia By Gregg Huff; Giovanni Caggiano
  5. Growth and Welfare Effects of East-West European Migration By Paul Levine; Emanuela Lotti; Joseph Pearlman; Richard Pierse
  6. Moving to Opportunity, Leaving Behind What? Evaluating the Initial Effects of a Migration Policy on Incomes and Poverty in Source Areas By David McKenzie; John Gibson; Steven Stillman
  7. Immigration, Information, and Trade Margins By Shan (Victor) Jiang
  8. Comparing the Networks of Ethnic Japanese and Ethnic Chinese in International Trade By Kumagai, Satoru
  9. Influencia de la inmigración en la elección escolar By Adriana Sánchez Hugalde

  1. By: Seán Lyons (Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI)); Karen Mayor (Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI)); Richard S.J. Tol (Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI))
    Abstract: This paper uses a McFadden choice model to measure the importance of destination, household and seasonal characteristics on the tourism destination choices of Irish households. The analysis is based on quarterly survey data of Irish households’ travel destinations between 2000 and 2006. In total, some 55 000 holiday trips were observed. Destination characteristics such as temperature, GDP and coastline are found to positively influence choice probabilities, while population density and distance have a negative effect on choice. Household specific characteristics such as the numbers of people over 60 and children in a household are found to be important. We also identify differences in preferences across seasons and a change over time of the effect of destination country GDP on Irish holiday destination choices.
    Keywords: International Tourism, Ireland, Demand Modelling
    JEL: D12 L83
    Date: 2007–09
  2. By: Edith Sand; Assaf Razin
    Abstract: In the political-economy debate people express the idea that immigrants are good because they can help pay for the old, thus help sustaining the social security system. In addition, the median voter whose income derives from wages will wish to keep out the immigrants who will depress his/her wage. Therefore the decisive voter will keep migrants out. The paper addresses these two accepted propositions. For this purpose we develop an OLG political economy model of social security and migration to explore how migration policy and a pay-as-you-go (PAYG) social security system are jointly determined. The sub-game perfect Markov , depends on the different patterns of fertility rates among native born and migrants. Our analysis demonstrates that a social security system may change the first proposition significantly because the median voter may opt to bring in migrants to help him/her during retirement. As for the second proposition we get a significantly nuanced version. Not always immigration helps sustain the social security.
    JEL: E6 H1
    Date: 2007–11
  3. By: Nekby, Lena (Stockholm University Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS); Rödin, Magnus (Stockholm University Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS); Özcan, Gülay (Stockholm University Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS)
    Abstract: This paper explores the identity formation of a cohort of students with immigrant backgrounds in Sweden and the consequences of identity for subsequent educational attainment. Unique for this study is that identity is defined according to a two-dimensional acculturation framework based on both strength of identity to the (ethnic) minority and to the (Swedish) majority culture. Results indicate that integrated men are associated with significantly higher levels of education than assimilated men. No differences in educational attainment are found between the assimilated and the integrated for women. These results put into question the premise of oppositional identities, i.e., a trade-off between ethnic identity and educational achievement, among immigrants in Sweden.
    Keywords: Ethnic Identity; Acculturation; Ethnic minorities; Education
    JEL: J15 J16 J21 Z13
    Date: 2007–11–09
  4. By: Gregg Huff; Giovanni Caggiano
    Abstract: This article uses new data sets to analyze labor market integration between 1882 and 1936 in an area of Asia stretching from South India to Southeastern China and encompassing the three Southeast Asian countries of Burma, Malaya and Thailand. We find that by the late nineteenth century, globalization, of which a principal feature was the mass migration of Indians and Chinese to Southeast Asia, gave rise to both an integrated Asian labor market and a period of real wage convergence. Integration did not, however, extend beyond Asia to include core industrial countries. Asian and core areas, in contrast to globally integrated commodity markets, showed divergent trends in unskilled real wages
    Keywords: Globalization; Labor market integration; Migration; Southeast Asia; Terms of trade, real wage convergence
    JEL: F15 F22 J31 N35 O15
    Date: 2007–07
  5. By: Paul Levine (University of Surrey); Emanuela Lotti (University of Surrey); Joseph Pearlman (London Metropolitan University); Richard Pierse (University of Surrey)
    Abstract: Using a calibrated two-bloc endogenous growth model of the European economy, we assess the growth and welfare impact of East-West European migration of different skill compositions. The East has a lower total factor productivity and a lower endowment of skilled labour. Migration can induce two growth-enhancing effects: an efficiency effect from the more e±cient use of labour in the West and a sectoral reallocation effect from a fall in the Western skilled-unskilled wage rates. Despite growth gains there are both winners (migrants, the representative Western non-migrant household) and losers (the representative Eastern household remaining). Remittances can see the latter group joining the winners.
    Keywords: migration, endogenous growth, welfare, immigration surplus, emigration
    JEL: F22 F43 O41
    Date: 2007–11
  6. By: David McKenzie (The World Bank); John Gibson (University of Waikato); Steven Stillman (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: Migration to New Zealand and consequent remittance inflows are dominant features of many Pacific Island countries. Evaluating the effect of these people and money flows on incomes and poverty in the Pacific is potentially complicated by the non-random selection of emigrants. This paper uses the randomization provided by an immigration ballot under the Pacific Access Category (PAC) of New Zealand’s immigration policy to address this problem. We survey applicants to the 2002-05 PAC ballots in Tonga and compare outcomes for the remaining family of emigrants with those for similar families who were unsuccessful in the ballots. We then contrast these estimates with more conventional ones that construct no-emigration counterfactuals by deducting remittance income from the remaining family of PAC emigrants and adding back the potential home earnings of emigrants. The results suggest that the economic welfare of remaining family may fall in the initial period after members of their household move to New Zealand. We also find that non-experimental methods of constructing counterfactual income are likely to work well only in rare situations where there is random selection of emigrants.
    Keywords: emigration; natural experiment; poverty; remittances
    JEL: J61 F22 C21
    Date: 2007–11–10
  7. By: Shan (Victor) Jiang
    Abstract: Recent theories suggest that better information in destination countries could reduce firm’s fixed export costs,lower uncertaintyo f trade policy responses,and improve policy making processes.To identify the relation betweeninformation and fixed export costs,I investigate how information, measured by immigration, affects extensive and intensive margins.The theoretical model predicts that higher fixed export costs reduce trade along the extensive margin,and higher variable export costs lower trade along both margins.Using a gravity model of Canada’s trade data with 125 partners over 1988-2004,I find immigrant stocks residing in Canada mainly affect the extensive margin rather than the intensive margin.This is evidence that information primarily affects fixed export costs.
    JEL: F12 F16 F22 C13 C32
    Date: 2007–10–31
  8. By: Kumagai, Satoru
    Abstract: In this paper I re-examined the trade enhancing effects of ethnic Chinese networks, found by Rauch and Trindade (2002), on a newer and extended data set. The effects are estimated by the gravity equation with the product of the population ratio (or absolute number) of the ethnic Chinese in both the importing and exporting countries, and are reaffirmed positive and statistically significant. I also compared the effects of two different ethnic Japanese networks, i.e., the networks of long-term Japanese stayers in foreign countries, and the networks of permanent Japanese residents in foreign countries. It is found that the former has stronger trade enhancing effects than the latter. This shows that the effects of ethnic networks on international trade can be generalized beyond the ethnic Chinese, and the ’cohesiveness’ of the ethnic network matters to the trade enhancing effects of the network.
    Keywords: Trade, Networks, East Asia, China, Japan, International trade, Overseas Chinese, Overseas Japanese
    JEL: F10
    Date: 2007–07
  9. By: Adriana Sánchez Hugalde (Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB); Universitat de Barcelona (UB))
    Abstract: This empirical work studies the influence of immigrant students on individuals’ school choice in one of the most populated regions in Spain: Catalonia. It has estimated, following the Poisson model, the probability that a certain school, which immigrant students are already attending, may be chosen by natives as well as by immigrants, respectively. The information provided by the Catalonia School Department presents school characteristics of all the primary and secondary schools in Catalonia during the 2001/02 and 2002/03 school years. The results obtained support the evidence that Catalonia native families avoid schools attended by immigrants. Natives certainly prefer not to interact with immigrants. Private schools are more successful in avoiding immigrants. Finally, the main reason for non-natives’ choice is the presence of other non-natives in the same school.
    Keywords: School Choice, Immigration
    JEL: I21 J15
    Date: 2007

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