nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2007‒09‒09
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Trinity College Dublin

  1. Migrant Entrepreneurship In A Diverse Europe: In Search Of Sustainable Development By Baycan-Levent, Tuzin; Nijkamp, Peter
  2. New Orientations in Ethnic Entrepreneurship: Motivation, Goals and Strategies of New Generation Ethnic Entrepreneurs By Baycan-Levent, Tuzin; Nijkamp, Peter; Sahin, Mediha
  3. Seasonal Migration and Agriculture in Vietnam By Alan De Brauw
  4. Does Migration Make Rural Households More Productive? Evidence from Mexico By J. Edward Taylor; Alejandro López-Feldman
  5. The Earnings of Immigrants in Ireland: Results from the 2005 EU Survey of Income and Living Conditions By Alan Barrett; Yvonne McCarthy
  6. Impacts of International Migration and Remittances on Source Country Household Incomes in Small Island States; Fiji and Tonga By Richard P.C. Brown; Gareth Leeves
  7. Bounds Analysis of Competing Risks: A Nonparametric Evaluation of the Effect of Unemployment Benefits on Imigration in Germany By Arntz, Melanie; Lo, Simon M. S.; Wilke, Ralf A.
  8. Public pensions and return migration By Tim Krieger
  9. Long-Term Rural Demographic Trends By Gustavo Anríquez

  1. By: Baycan-Levent, Tuzin (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculteit der Economische Wetenschappen en Econometrie (Free University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics Sciences, Business Administration and Economitrics); Nijkamp, Peter
    Abstract: This paper aims to emphasize the importance of entrepreneurship for the European innovation system and addresses in particular the opportunities offered by migrant (or ethnic) entrepreneurship. After a concise review of the European ‘entrepreneurial economy’, the economic significance of self-employment is highlighted. It is argued that migrant entrepreneurship offers many possibilities for coping with socio-cultural diversity and may contribute to a sustainable socio-economic development. Several data are presented to support these views, while the paper also offers promising policy guidelines.
    Date: 2007
  2. By: Baycan-Levent, Tuzin (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculteit der Economische Wetenschappen en Econometrie (Free University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics Sciences, Business Administration and Economitrics); Nijkamp, Peter; Sahin, Mediha
    Abstract: The literature on ethnic entrepreneurship has identified a blend of structural and cultural factors that influence the step towards ethnic entrepreneurship. An important issue is whether ethnic entrepreneurs produce for their own ethnic niches or whether they try to cover a wider market of customers. This difference between so-called internal and external orientation has been the subject of many recent empirical investigations. An internal orientation may offer a more protected market, but will never lead to market expansion (break-out strategy). An external orientation requires more skills, diversified communication channels and access to government policy support measures. The concentration of ethnic entrepreneurs in traditional sectors has led many studies to focus mainly on this internal orientation, while there is a limited number of studies that address non-traditional sectors and external orientations of ethnic entrepreneurs. Against this background, the present study aims to deal with new departures for ethnic entrepreneurship in terms of motivation, sectoral choice, business goals and strategies of new generation ethnic entrepreneurs. What is the motivation and orientation of new generation ethnic entrepreneurs? How far are new generation ethnic entrepreneurs from their ethnic groups or their ethnic niches in the market? Can an innovative orientation –external orientation- help to break out from the local ethnic dependency or to escape from a lock-in situation in an ethnic enclave? Can the different motivations and orientations of new generation ethnic entrepreneurs help in realizing effective break-out strategies? In order to answer these questions the study focuses on external orientations of new generation ethnic entrepreneurs, while it addresses in particular the way -and the extent to which- the choice for entrepreneurship is made by higher educated ethnic young generations.
    Date: 2007
  3. By: Alan De Brauw (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: In developing countries, when markets are incomplete migration can have multiple effects on agricultural production. In this paper, I use instrumental variables techniques to explore the effects of seasonal migration on agricultural production in rural Vietnam during the 1990s. Instrumenting migration with network variables specific to Vietnam, I find that migration shapes agricultural production is several ways. Although there are no effects of migration on aggregate production, there is weak evidence that migrant households move somewhat out of rice production and into the production of other crops. Inputs used by migrant households also decrease relative to similar non-migrant households. In exploring the mechanisms by which these changes occur, I find evidence consistent with a move from labor intensive into land intensive crops, rather than productivity changes or a shift from using labor to capital as an input.
    Keywords: Migration, Vietnam, instrumental variables, agriculture, factor demands.
    JEL: O15 Q12 J62
    Date: 2007
  4. By: J. Edward Taylor (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Alejandro López-Feldman (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: The migration of labor out of rural areas and the flow of remittances from migrants to rural households is an increasingly important feature of less developed countries. This paper explores ways in which migration influences incomes and productivity of land and human capital in rural households over time, using new household survey data from Mexico. Our findings suggest that a massive increase in migration to the United States increased per-capita incomes via remittances and also by raising land productivity in migrant-sending households. They do not support the pessimistic view that migration discourages production in migrant-sending economies, nor the view implicit in separable agricultural household models that migration and remittances influence household incomes but not production.
    Keywords: Migration, income, agricultural production, Mexico.
    JEL: O15 O13
    Date: 2007
  5. By: Alan Barrett (Economic and Social Research Institute and IZA); Yvonne McCarthy (Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland, formerly of the Economic and Social Research Institute)
    Abstract: This paper has three objectives. First, a review of the developing body of work on the economics of immigration in Ireland is provided. Second, the analysis undertaken by Barrett and McCarthy (forthcoming) of earnings of immigrants in Ireland is updated. Third, the earnings of immigrant women are assessed to see if they experience a "double disadvantage". Among other findings, the review of the emerging literature points to immigrants faring less well in the Irish labour market relative to native employees. As regards the analysis conducted in this paper, we find that immigrants were earning 15 percent less than comparable natives employees in 2005. For immigrants from non-English speaking countries, the wage disadvantage was 20 percent. The corresponding figure for immigrants from the EU’s New Member States was 31 percent. A double disadvantage is found for immigrant women, with the earnings of female immigrants found to be 14 percent less than those of comparable native female employees. This double disadvantage is concentrated among female immigrants with third level degrees.
    Keywords: immigrants’ earnings, Ireland
    JEL: J61
    Date: 2007–08
  6. By: Richard P.C. Brown (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Gareth Leeves (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: We use original 2005 survey data from Fiji and Tonga on remittances and household income to estimate the combined impact of migration and remittances on the composition of household income. A two-stage methodology is followed. A variable for the predicted number of migrants in each household is generated to control for selectivity in migration. This variable is then used in a 3SLS remittances and income equation system. In neither country do we observe significant impacts on agricultural cash income, but, in relation to other income sources, including subsistence agriculture, wages and non-agricultural business activities, some significant and different effects are found, both positive and negative. These findings suggest that the duration and intensity of remittance-driven migration, and the structure of economic activity within a community are important in understanding the influences of migration and remittances on household resource allocation and production decisions and on the community’s economic transformation.
    Keywords: Migration, remittances, agricultural and non-agricultural income sources, Fiji, Tonga.
    JEL: O15 O13
    Date: 2007
  7. By: Arntz, Melanie; Lo, Simon M. S.; Wilke, Ralf A.
    Abstract: In this paper we derive nonparametric bounds for the cumulative incidence curve within a competing risks model with partly identified interval data. As an advantage over earlier attempts our approach also gives valid results in case of dependent competing risks. We apply our framework to empirically evaluate the effect of unemployment benefits on observed migration of unemployed workers in Germany. Our findings weakly indicate that reducing the entitlement length for unemployment benefits increases migration among high-skilled individuals.
    Keywords: cumulative incidence curve, partially missing data, bounds analysis, difference-in-differences
    JEL: C14 C41 J61
    Date: 2007
  8. By: Tim Krieger (Department of Economics, University of Paderborn)
    Abstract: In a median-voter framework with pensions and immigration we show that too few unskilled immigrants are allowed into the country because the unskilled native median voter is concerned with negative effects on his wage. He does not consider the positive effects to other groups in society. When return migration is allowed for, the median voter is more willing to accept immigration because he can shift some of the burden to future generations.
    Keywords: migration, return migration, unfunded pension system, voting
    JEL: H55 J61 D72
    Date: 2006–12–14
  9. By: Gustavo Anríquez (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: This paper studies rural demographic trends at the global level with an analysis of a specially prepared database of population age/gender/rurality tables from population censuses. The focus is to identify the main demographic differences in the evolution of rural and urban populations. Among the main findings of this study, we report that with the exception of Sub- Saharan Africa there is no rural feminization. Also, rural ageing is not observed at aggregate levels in rural regions of the developing world. Perhaps the main adverse demographic trend of rural populations is the high dependency ratios brought about by higher fertility rates. This paper also carries out a census-based cross-country net-migration study identifying the main characteristics of rural out-migration in Latin America, and searches for common threads in East Africa. This analysis shows important improvements of welfare indicators and asset accumulation in rural Latin America (promoting an upward convergence of poorer and richer areas of countries), partially explained by migration. We did not find common characteristics in rural out-migration in East Africa, but report that education is the key asset that enables out-migration from poorer rural communities in East Africa.
    Keywords: rural feminization, ageing, dependency, rural migration.
    JEL: J11 J16 R23
    Date: 2007

This nep-mig issue is ©2007 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.