nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2007‒06‒23
eight papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Trinity College Dublin

  1. Soaring Minds: The Flight of Israel’s Economists By Ben-David, Dan
  2. Nash equilibrium tariffs and illegal immigration: an analysis of preferential trade liberalization By Subhayu Bandyopadhyay; Ryo Takashima
  3. Changes in Social Security Eligibility and the International Mobility of New Zealand Citizens in Australia By Jacques Poot; Lynda Sanderson
  4. A land of milk and honey with streets paved with gold: Do emigrants have over-optimistic expectations about incomes abroad? By David McKenzie; John Gibson; Steven Stillman
  5. Labour market entry of migrants in Germany : does cultural diversity matter? By Haas, Anette; Damelang, Andreas
  6. Mental Accounting and Remittances: A Study of Malawian Households By Davies, Simon; Easaw, Joshy; Ghoshray, Atanu
  7. As bad as it gets: Well being deprivation of sexually exploited trafficked women By Strom Steinar; Shima Isilda; Bettio Francesca; Di Tommaso Maria Laura
  8. Relative deprivation in the labour space By Verme Paolo

  1. By: Ben-David, Dan
    Abstract: Despite their small number, Israeli economists have become an important fixture in the international academic scene. In recent years, this phenomenon has been characterized by an additional attribute: the number of Israelis who have chosen to leave the country’s universities - or not to return to them - a process that has brought Israel’s top economics departments to the brink. The elimination of the country from the international research envelope in the future has become a realistic possibility that will impact not only the State of Israel, which stands to lose the most, but the profession in general. This article provides a snapshot of an implosion in progress. It also provides a case study that is important for other countries to understand as some steadily advance toward the Israeli scenario.
    Keywords: academic economists; brain drain; Israel; migration; rankings
    JEL: A11 F22 H52 H83 I23 J31 J61 O15
    Date: 2007–06
  2. By: Subhayu Bandyopadhyay; Ryo Takashima
    Abstract: We use a version of the small-union Meade model to consider the effects of interdependent import tariffs in the presence illegal immigration. First, we analyze the condition under which illegal immigration is likely to increase (or decrease) in response to reciprocal trade liberalization between the source and host nations (of illegal immigration). Next we describe the Nash equilibrium in tariffs between these nations and discus how a liberalization of tariffs starting from this Nash equilibrium is likely to affect their utility. Finally, we consider the effect of the host nation's liberalization of the import tariff (imposed on its imports from a third nation). We show that strategic considerations regarding the effect of this tariff liberalization on the Nash equilibrium tariffs can modify the traditional (trade creating/diverting) gains from such liberalization.
    Keywords: Trade ; Immigrants
    Date: 2007
  3. By: Jacques Poot (University of Waikato); Lynda Sanderson (Ministry of Economic Development)
    Abstract: This paper is concerned with the international mobility of New Zealanders who migrate to Australia. One in ten New Zealand citizens lives in Australia and their settlement and subsequent mobility is important from demographic, socio-economic and policy perspectives in both countries. Using a unique longitudinal dataset on New Zealand citizens arriving for a stay of 12 months or longer between 1 August 1999 and 31 July 2002, we track all subsequent moves of these migrants out of and back into Australia, up to July 2005. This allows us to assess the impact of the removal of labour market-related social security eligibility and some other policy changes affecting New Zealand migrants to Australia, implemented between February and June 2001. United Kingdom migrants to Australia, who were not affected by the policy changes, provide a ‘control group’. Using hazard models, we find that the policy changes increased the probability of remigration from Australia among those who had intended to settle permanently. Competing risk models suggested no difference between the impact of the policy changes on onward or return moves. Settlers arriving after the policy changes spend less time Australia and make more trips away than earlier migrants.
    Keywords: International Migration, International Travel, New Zealand, Australia, United Kingdom, Social Welfare, Immigration Policy, Selectivity
    JEL: C41 F22 J61
    Date: 2007–06–20
  4. By: David McKenzie (Development Research Group, World Bank); John Gibson (University of Waikato); Steven Stillman (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: Millions of people emigrate every year in search of better economic and social opportunities. Anecdotal evidence suggests that emigrants may have over-optimistic expectations about the incomes they can earn abroad, resulting in excessive migration pressure, and in disappointment amongst those who do migrate. Yet there is almost no statistical evidence on how accurately these emigrants predict the incomes that they will earn working abroad. In this paper we combine a natural emigration experiment with unique survey data on would-be emigrants’ probabilistic expectations about employment and incomes in the migration destination. Our procedure enables us to obtain moments and quantiles of the subjective distribution of expected earnings in the destination country. We find a significant underestimation of both unconditional and conditional labor earnings at all points in the distribution. This under-estimation appears driven in part by potential migrants placing too much weight on the negative employment experiences of some migrants, and by inaccurate information flows from extended family, who may be trying to moderate remittance demands by understating incomes.
    Keywords: Expectations; Migration; Natural Experiment
    JEL: D84 F22 J61
    Date: 2007–05
  5. By: Haas, Anette (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Damelang, Andreas (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "This paper provides an analysis of the labour market entry of migrant youth in Germany after completion of an apprenticeship. We are particularly interested in the impact of local cultural diversity on a successful career start. Focusing on the cohort of people completing apprenticeships in 2000, we distinguish between Turks, citizens of former Yugoslavia, EU15 migrants and other migrants compared with Germans as the reference group. A multinomial probit model reveals that Turkish apprentices and those from the other migrant groups have a significantly lower probability of transition into the primary labour market, whereas EU15 migrants do not differ from Germans in this respect. In addition to controlling for individual and firm characteristics as well as occupation, we explicitly include regional characteristics. Our results show that if there is a high level of cultural diversity, young migrants will find employment more easily. In contrast to other studies which emphasize the impact of friends and family ties, we conclude that networks and information flows which are not restricted to an individual's own ethnic group increase the likelihood of finding a job." (author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: ausländische Jugendliche, betriebliche Berufsausbildung, Ausbildungsabsolventen, Berufseinmündung, kulturelle Identität, zweite Schwelle, Migranten, regionaler Arbeitsmarkt, Arbeitsmarktchancen, Westdeutschland, Bundesrepublik Deutschland
    JEL: F22 J61 J62 R23
    Date: 2007–06–14
  6. By: Davies, Simon; Easaw, Joshy; Ghoshray, Atanu
    Abstract: In this paper we use a behavioural approach to studying household consumption behaviour in Malawi. In particular we are interested to know whether households use mental accounting when consuming different categories of good. It is useful for assessing the impact of remittances on household consumption behaviour. We use 1998 cross-sectional data to find the following key results: (i) mental accounting systems are in operation. Remittance income exhibits a high marginal propensity to save, (ii) household income influences consumption habits, (iii) receipt of remittance income impacts on saving and spending habits. This is in line with the theory of remittances and corresponding mental accounting theory, and, finally, (iv) both remittances and loans are used for consumption smoothing and investment purposes.
    Keywords: Remittances; Household Behaviour; Consumer Economics; Economic Development; Africa; Malawi
    JEL: D12 D1 O15
    Date: 2006–10
  7. By: Strom Steinar (University of Turin); Shima Isilda (University of Turin); Bettio Francesca; Di Tommaso Maria Laura (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The International Organization for Migration has collected data on traffìcked ìndividuals. The aim of this paper is to use the sub-sample of sexually exploited women in order to explore the relationship between their well being deprivation, their personal characteristics, and their working locations. We use the theoretical framework of the capability approach to conceptualize well being deprivation and we estimate a MIMIC (Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes) model. The utilized indìcators measure abuse, freedom of movement, and access to medical care. This model also allows us to estimate the effects of some covariates on this measure of well being.
    Date: 2007–04
  8. By: Verme Paolo (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The paper develops a concept, a measure and an index of relative labour deprivation based on theories of social justice, a, labour participation model and an index of relative dleprivation. The use of these tools is tillustrated with kousehold data onn urban migration in Turkey. It is shown how they can be effective in providing policy recommendations in areas characterized by heterogeneous communities
    Date: 2007–02

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