nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2007‒06‒18
six papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Trinity College Dublin

  1. What is the impact of international remittances on poverty and inequality in Latin America ? By Lopez, Humberto; Fajnzylber, Pablo; Calderon, Cesar; Acosta, Pablo
  2. Regional impacts of remittances on the economic growth of Mexico By Mendoza, Jorge Eduardo; Calderon, Cuahtemoc
  3. On the aggregate effects of immigration in Spain By Mario Izquierdo; Juan F. Jimeno; Juan A. Rojas
  4. The Migration of African Americans to the Canadian Football League during the mid-20th Century: An Escape from Discrimination? By Neil Longley; Todd Crosset; Steve Jefferson
  5. Transnational Networking and Business Success: Ethnic entrepreneurs in Canada By Dafna Kariv; Teresa V. Menzies; Gabrielle A. Brenner; Louis Jacques Filion
  6. ¿Por qué preocupa la inmigración?: Un análisis de los datos de la encuesta del CIS By Namkee Ahn; Pablo Vázquez

  1. By: Lopez, Humberto; Fajnzylber, Pablo; Calderon, Cesar; Acosta, Pablo
    Abstract: Workers ' remittances have become a major source of income for developing countries. However, little is still known about their impact on poverty and inequality. Using a large cross-country panel dataset, the authors find that remittances in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries have increased growth and reduced inequality and poverty. These results are robust to the use of different instruments that attempt to correct for the potential endogeneity of remittances. Household survey-based estimates for 10 LAC countries confirm that remittances have negative albeit relatively small inequality and poverty-reducing effects, even after imputations for the potential home earnings of migrants.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Remittances,Inequality,Pro-Poor Growth and Inequality,Poverty Impact Evaluation
    Date: 2007–06–01
  2. By: Mendoza, Jorge Eduardo; Calderon, Cuahtemoc
    Abstract: The study relates the economic liberalization of the Mexican economy and the expansion of remittances inflows with regional economic growth in Mexico. A convergence non-linear econometric model was specified using the degree of economic openness and remittances as the conditional variables. The results showed that some regions have experienced a rapid growth of per capita remittances. However this variable does not presented a statistically significant coefficient. On the other hand, variables reflecting economic liberalization exhibited a positive effect on regional growth.
    Keywords: International Migration; remittances; regional economic growth
    JEL: O14 J61 O47
    Date: 2006
  3. By: Mario Izquierdo (Banco de España); Juan F. Jimeno (Banco de España; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR); Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)); Juan A. Rojas (Banco de España)
    Abstract: This paper presents a dynamic general equilibrium model designed to compute the aggregate impact of immigration, accounting for relevant supply and demand effects. We calibrate the model to the Spanish economy, allowing for enough heterogeneity in the demographic characteristics of immigrant and native workers. We consider an initial steady state characterized by the age structure of the Spanish population in 1995 and study the effects of several immigration scenarios on several macroeconomic variables (GDP, employment, productivity, etc.).
    Keywords: immigration, general equilbrium models
    JEL: E10 F22
    Date: 2007–06
  4. By: Neil Longley (Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts); Todd Crosset (Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts); Steve Jefferson (Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts)
    Abstract: The institutional racial discrimination that existed in American professional team sports prior to World War II resulted in African American players effectively being barred from playing in the major professional leagues. Although the NFL color barrier did officially fall in 1946, to be quickly followed by the fall of the MLB color barrier one year later when Jackie Robinson made his debut for the Brooklyn Dodgers, these events were just the beginning of the struggles for African American athletes. Integration proceeded very slowly during the next two decades, and economists have shown that African Americans continued to suffer from a variety of forms of discriminatory treatment. However, it is the argument of this paper that the literature that examines discrimination during this era is incomplete, in that it ignores the experiences of a small, but relatively significant, group of African American football players who actually chose to leave their own country – and correspondingly leave the racially-charged environment of mid-20th century America – to head north to play professional football in the Canadian Football League (CFL). Beginning in 1946, a steady flow of African Americans began to migrate to the CFL which, at the time, was a legitimate competitor league to the NFL. This paper attempts to test a perception seemingly held by some that, by moving to Canada, African American football players were able to escape the racial injustices they often suffered in the US. This view appears to have its roots in the notion that Canada is a “gentler”, more tolerant society, without the divisive socio-political history that characterizes much of the race relations in the US. This paper tests these notions using a variety of empirical approaches. The results indicate that, while African Americans were better represented in the CFL relative to the NFL, African Americans still faced some level of entry discrimination in the CFL. In particular, African American players in the CFL outperformed their white counterparts on numerous performance dimensions, indicating the overall talent level in the CFL could have been further improved by employing an even greater number of African Americans. Additionally, the paper finds that those CFL teams that employed the highest percentage of African Americans were those teams that had the most on-field success. Finally, the paper analyzes prices of player trading cards from that era, and finds that cards of African Americans were undervalued, relative to white CFL players of equal talent.
    Keywords: sports
    JEL: J71 L83
    Date: 2007–06
  5. By: Dafna Kariv; Teresa V. Menzies; Gabrielle A. Brenner (IEA, HEC Montréal); Louis Jacques Filion
    Abstract: It is agreed that transnational networking plays an important role in the effectiveness of ethnic entrepreneurial firms. Yet, distinctions between the different types of transnational networking and their effects on business effectiveness have received scant attention in the literature, probably because ethnicity has been considered the main actor in the networkingeffectiveness relationship. This paper argues that one of the reasons business effectiveness differs across ethnic entrepreneurial firms is that ethnic entrepreneurs engage in dissimilar types of transnational networking. Analyses of the data generated by 720 ethnic entrepreneurs in Canada, revealed that ethnicity, human capital and push-pull factors play a central role in the engagement of different types of transitional networking; and the different types of transnational networking affect the business turnover (sales) and the business survival (age). Push-pull factors were found to play a marginal role in the business effectiveness. These results highlight the competitive market immigrants and members of ethnic minority groups encounter in the hosting economy and stress the value of transnational networking.
    Keywords: Transnational Entrepreneurship, Networks, Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Ethnic Entrepreneur, Push and Pull Factors, Business Success, Business Outcomes
    Date: 2006–12
  6. By: Namkee Ahn; Pablo Vázquez
    Abstract: La inmigración ha pasado a ser, en breve espacio de tiempo, una de las principales preocupaciones de los españoles. Al mismo tiempo que se han hacían públicos los primeros estudios demostrando la aportación positiva de los inmigrantes al progreso de nuestro país, aumentaba la percepción de la inmigración como problema. En este trabajo realizamos una primera aproximación para tratar de resolver esta paradoja. Explicamos cómo el modo de realizar la encuesta puede estar acentuando los resultados. Mostramos cómo las circunstancias personales y de entorno juegan un papel relevante a la hora de explicar la preocupación, si bien la competencia en el mercado de trabajo no parece estar desempeñando un papel relevante; y finalmente subrayamos la importancia de los medios de comunicación como canales a través de los que no sólo se transmiten sino también se generan (o al menos se amplifican) las preocupaciones en la sociedad actual.

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