nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2007‒06‒02
six papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Trinity College Dublin

  1. Do Domestic Educations Even Out the Playing Field? Ethnic Labor Market Gaps in Sweden By Nekby, Lena; Özcan, Gülay
  2. Immigrant overeducation : evidence from Denmark By Nielsen, Chantal Pohl
  3. Acculturation Identity and Labor Market Outcomes By Nekby, Lena; Rödin, Magnus
  4. Are Workers' Remittances a Hedge Against Macroeconomic Shocks? The Case of Sri Lanka By Erik Lueth; Marta Ruiz-Arranz
  5. A Model of Ethnic Conflict By Joan Esteban; Debraj Ray
  6. Migrations et marché du travail dans l'espace Européen By El Mouhoub Mouhoud; Joel Oudinet

  1. By: Nekby, Lena (Stockholm University Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS); Özcan, Gülay (Stockholm University Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS)
    Abstract: The importance of investing in host country-specific human capital such as domestic language proficiency and domestic education is often cited as a determining factor for the labor market success of immigrants. This suggests that entirely domestic educations should even out the playing field providing equal labor market opportunities for natives and immigrants with similar (domestic) educations. This study follows a cohort of students from Swedish compulsory school graduation in 1988 until 2002 in order to document ethnic differences in education, including grades and field of education, and subsequent labor market outcomes. Results indicate both initial differences in youth labor market status and long term differences in employment rates, most notably for those with Non-European backgrounds. Differences in level or field of domestic education cannot explain persistent employment gaps. However, employment gaps are driven by differences among those with secondary school only. No employment or income gaps are found for the university educated.
    Keywords: Ethnic minorities; Education; Employment; Income; Discrimination
    JEL: I21 J15 J71 Z13
    Date: 2007–05–25
  2. By: Nielsen, Chantal Pohl
    Abstract: Anecdotes abound in the Danish public debate about well-educated immigrants that are in jobs they are formally overqualified for. Using a 1995-2002 panel data set based on Danish registers, this study attempts to find out how large a problem immigrant overeducation is in the context of the Danish labor market. More specifically, three questions are posed: First, to what extent are immigrants overeducated and are they more likely to be so than native Danes? Second, why are some immigrants more likely to become overeducated than others? And finally, what are the consequences of overeducation for individual wages? The authors find that among wage earners with at least a vocational education or higher, 25 percen t of male non-Western immigrants are overeducated. The same applies for 15 percent of native Danes. Particularly immigrants with a foreign-acquired education risk becoming overeducated - here the share is 30 percent among those with a vocational education or higher. The authors find that Danish labor market experience is extremely important in reducing the likelihood of becoming overeducated. Years spent in the country without accumulating labor market experience do not improve an individual ' s chances of an appropriate job-to-education match. In terms of earnings consequences, the study concludes that years of overeducation do increase wages for immigrants, but much less so than years of adequate education. This is also true for native Danes, but the relative penalty for overeducation is much larger for immigrants than for Danes.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Population Policies,Access & Equity in Basic Education,Education For All,Teaching and Learning
    Date: 2007–05–01
  3. By: Nekby, Lena (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm University); Rödin, Magnus (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: This paper explores the identity formation of a cohort of students with immigrant backgrounds in Sweden and the consequences of identity for subsequent labor market outcomes. Unique for this study is that identity is defined according to a two-dimensional acculturation framework based on both strength of identity to the (ethnic) minority and to the (Swedish) majority culture. Results indicate that what matters for labor market outcomes is strength of identification with the majority culture regardless of strength of (ethnic) minority identity. Labor market outcomes vary little between the assimilated and the integrated who have in common a strong majority identity but varying minority identity. Correlations between identity and labor market outcomes are however, an entirely male phenomenon.
    Keywords: Ethnic Identity; Acculturation; Ethnic minorities; Employment; Income
    JEL: J15 J16 J21 Z13
    Date: 2007–05–27
  4. By: Erik Lueth; Marta Ruiz-Arranz
    Abstract: We estimate a vector error correction (VEC) model for Sri Lanka to determine the response of remittance receipts to macroeconomic shocks. This is the first attempt of its kind in the literature. We find that remittance receipts are procyclical and decline when the island's currency weakens, undermining their usefulness as shock absorber. On the other hand, remittances increase in response to oil price shocks, reflecting the fact that most overseas. Sri Lankan are employed in the Gulf states. The procyclicality of remittances calls into question the notion that remittances are largely motivated by altruism.
    Keywords: Workers remittances , Sri Lanka , Business cycles , Economic conditions , Economic models ,
    Date: 2007–02–02
  5. By: Joan Esteban; Debraj Ray
    Abstract: We present a model of conflict, in which discriminatory government policy or social intolerance is responsive to various forms of ethnic activism, including violence. It is this perceived responsiveness ? captured by the probability that the government gives in and accepts a proponed change in ethnic policy?that induces individuals to mobilize in support for their cause. Yet, mobilization is costly and demonstrators have to be compensated accordingly. Individuals have to weigh their ethnic radicalism with their material well-being to determine the size of their money contribution to the cause. Our main results are: (i) a one-sided increase in radicalism or in population size increases conflict; (ii) a one-sided increase in income has ambiguous effects depending on the elasticity of contributions to income; (iii) an increase in within-group inequality increases conflict; and (iv) an increase in the correlation between ethnic radicalism and inequality also increases conflict.
    Date: 2007–05–22
  6. By: El Mouhoub Mouhoud (CEPN - Centre d'économie de l'Université de Paris Nord - [CNRS : UMR7115] - [Université Paris-Nord - Paris XIII]); Joel Oudinet (CEPN - Centre d'économie de l'Université de Paris Nord - [CNRS : UMR7115] - [Université Paris-Nord - Paris XIII])
    Abstract: Cet article analyse le rôle et les déterminants des migrations de main-d'œuvre sur les marchés du travail des pays de l'Union européenne selon le degré de qualification des migrants, leurs caractéristiques sur les marchés du travail et leur origine intra ou extracommunautaire. L'immigration dans les pays de l'UE apparaît moins sensible aux variables de déséquilibre du marché du travail, telles que le niveau de salaire relatif et le taux de chômage relatif qu'aux variables structurelles telles que les effets de réseaux ou les différences d'aménités. Toutefois, les migrants qui viennent des pays non membres de l'Union Européenne sont davantage influencés par les différences de salaires entre les pays dans leur choix du pays d'accueil que les migrants d'origine intracommunautaire.
    Keywords: Migration; Flux migratoires; Mobilités; Union Européenne; réseaux
    Date: 2007–05–24

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