nep-mfd New Economics Papers
on Microfinance
Issue of 2022‒08‒29
two papers chosen by
Olivier Dagnelie
Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour

  1. Mutual Organizations, Mutual Societies By Edith Archambault
  2. E-Money in Ghana: A Case Study By Samuel Senyo Okae; Eugene Yarboi Mensah

  1. By: Edith Archambault (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: According to a very broad definition of the European Commission, mutual organizations/ societies "are voluntary groups of persons (natural or legal) whose purpose is primarily to meet the needs of their members rather than achieve a return on investment." This broad definition includes self-help groups, friendly societies, cooperatives, mutual insurance companies, mutual benefit societies, credit unions, building societies, savings and loans associations, microcredit, burial associations, Freemasons.. . (European Commission 2003). Hereafter, it is a more restricted definition that is used, relying on principles shared by most mutuals in Europe, the region where they are the most widespread. However, some international examples put European mutual societies in perspective. The core organizations examined here will be mutual insurance companies and mutual benefit societies. In that sense, mutual societies are insurance companies run by their members for protecting them against property, personal and social risks on a voluntary and noncompulsory basis. Mutual insurance companies deal with property and life risks while mutual benefit societies protect their members against social risks, mainly illness, disability, and old age.
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Samuel Senyo Okae (Bank of Ghana); Eugene Yarboi Mensah (Ghana Deposit Protection Corporation)
    Abstract: The usage of electronic money (e-money) for transactions has grown across Ghana and has the potential to revolutionise the cash-dominant economy to become cashless. Propelling this growth are mobile money operators (MMOs), which have developed to offer a specific type of e-money, termed mobile money (MM). With the increased use of mobile-money services and growth in the payment systems sector each day, it is imperative for Ghana to design a holistic approach to the use of e-money as well as consider its operationalisation of the coverage by the deposit insurer. The Ghana Payment Systems Act, 2019 (Act 987) sets out the rules for the issuance of e-money within Ghana and the supervision of the business of e-money institutions (EMIs), which includes MMOs. There are growing concerns about safeguarding client funds held by EMIs worldwide. In Ghana, client funds held by EMIs must be placed in custodial accounts at banks. As a result, it has become necessary for Ghana's deposit insurance system to consider how to protect these funds. Funds backing the electronic value belonging to customers of MMOs are kept in a custodian account which resides with banks and hence the need for these funds to be protected in case of a bank failure is being discussed. This brief describes the distinctions between deposits and e-money and provides a description of the key features of e-money in the Ghanaian context. It discusses the factors influencing the protection of e-money wallets and the float (defined as the cash equivalent of outstanding electronic money liabilities of an electronic money issuer with partner banks) kept with commercial banks. Finally, options to be considered for the possible protection of these wallets in case of bank liquidation are presented.
    Keywords: deposit insurance, bank resolution
    JEL: G21 G33
    Date: 2022–08

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