nep-mfd New Economics Papers
on Microfinance
Issue of 2007‒07‒13
five papers chosen by
Olivier Dagnelie
University of Namur

  1. Performance and corporate governance in microfinance institutions By Mersland, Roy; Strøm, Reidar Øystein
  2. Rural Credit Delivery System in Maharashtra: Some Emerging Issues By Shah, Deepak
  3. Rejuvenating Rural Credit Delivery System in Maharashtra of India By Shah, Deepak
  4. Strategies to Resurrect Rural Credit Delivery System in India By Shah, Deepak
  5. Evaluating Financial Health of Credit Cooperatives in Maharashtra of India By Shah, Deepak

  1. By: Mersland, Roy; Strøm, Reidar Øystein
    Abstract: We trace the relationship between firm performance and corporate governance in microfinance institutions (MFI) utilising a self constructed global data set on MFIs, collected from third-party rating agencies. We study the effect of board characteristics, ownership type, competition and regulation on the MFI's outreach to poor clients and its financial performance. The results show that split roles of CEO and chairman, a female CEO, and competition are important explanations. Larger board size decreases the average loan size while individual guaranteed loan increases it. No difference between nonprofit organisations and shareholder firms in financial performance and outreach is found.
    Keywords: Microfinance organizations; governance; performance
    JEL: G32 G21 G30 O16 J23
    Date: 2007–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:3887&r=mfd
  2. By: Shah, Deepak
    Abstract: An investigation into rural credit delivery system in Maharashtra shows slower growth in institutional finances through commercial banks, credit cooperatives, RRBs and LDBs, particularly during the decade of 1991-2000, which is mainly due to adverse environment created by the financial sector reforms. Due to unfavourable policy framework, the entire rural credit delivery system is reduced to a moribund state. High transaction costs and poor repayment performance are the twin root causes of the moribund state of rural credit delivery system. With a view to revive the agricultural credit delivery system, there is need to adopt innovative approaches like linking of Self-Help Groups (SHGs) and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) with mainstream financial institutions. The revival of rural credit delivery system of Maharashtra also depends on strategies that are required for tackling issues such as sustainability and viability, operational efficiency, recovery performance, small farmer coverage and balanced sectoral development of the state.
    Keywords: Rural Credit Delivery
    JEL: R11
    Date: 2007–07–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:3859&r=mfd
  3. By: Shah, Deepak
    Abstract: An investigation into rural credit delivery system in Maharashtra shows slower growth in institutional finances through commercial banks, credit cooperatives, RRBs and LDBs, particularly during the decade of 1991- 2000, which is mainly due to adverse environment created by the financial sector reforms. Due to unfavourable policy framework, the entire rural credit delivery system encompassing rural branches of commercial banks, cooperative credit institutions and RRBs is reduced to a moribund state. High transaction costs and poor repayment performance are the twin root causes of the moribund state of rural credit delivery system. With a view to revive the agricultural credit delivery system, there is need to adopt innovative approaches like linking of Self-Help Groups (SHGs) and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) with mainstream financial institutions. Such linkages are reported to have not only reduced transaction costs but also ensured better repayment performance. One of the recent studies conducted in Maharashtra has shown cent per cent recovery of loans through SHGs despite having excessively high rates of interest (24-36 per cent per annum) on their loan advances. One of the further disquieting features of RFIs in Maharashtra has been the high proportion of NPAs to total assets, particularly of RRBs and SCARDBs, which are estimated to hover around 36-48 per cent during the mid-to late nineties. One of the reasons for such high incidence of NPAs of RFIs has been the familiar practice of debt forgiveness, which eroded repayment and allowed defaulters to scot free with no deterrent reprimand. Political interference in issues of prudent fiscal management has got a lot to do with this unfortunate scenario. In order to rejuvenate rural credit delivery system, the twin problems facing the system, viz., high transaction costs and poor repayment performance, need to be tackled with more fiscal jurisprudence reserving exemplary punishment for willful defaults, especially by large farmers. In fact, insofar as the rural credit delivery system is concerned, the focus should be on strategies that are required for tackling issues such as sustainability and viability, operational efficiency, recovery performance, small farmer coverage and balanced sectoral development.
    Keywords: Rejuvenation Rural Credit Delivery in India
    JEL: R11
    Date: 2007–07–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:3951&r=mfd
  4. By: Shah, Deepak
    Abstract: The RFIs operating in Maharashtra have not only shown slower growth in their loan advances and other operational indicators during the period between 1991 and 2000 but also poor performance thereafter. The credit cooperatives in particular have shown significantly high NPAs in Maharashtra. In Maharashtra, Vidarbha region not only shows very low magnitudes of credit flow through cooperatives but also decline in share of loan for cotton crop vis-à-vis other field crops. One of the adverse effects of slowing down in loan advances for cotton crop is seen on the farming community of this region where a significant number of cotton growers have committed suicide either due to lack of loan advances to them or because of pressure created by various financial institutions in terms of recovery of loan despite crop failure. With a view to revive the agricultural credit delivery system, there is need to tackle twin problems facing the system, viz., growing NPAs with falling CD ratios and poor recovery performance of RFIs, aside from adopting innovative approaches like linking of SHGs and NGOs with mainstream financial institutions. In brief, the focus of rural credit delivery system should be on strategies that are required for tackling issues such as sustainability and viability, operational efficiency, recovery performance, small farmer coverage and balanced sectoral development.
    Keywords: Rural Credit Delivery India
    JEL: G21
    Date: 2007–07–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:3922&r=mfd
  5. By: Shah, Deepak
    Abstract: An analysis encompassing two case studies conducted in forward and backward regions of Maharashtra (India) has shown deterioration in the financial health of central level credit cooperatives (Sangli District Central Cooperative Bank (SDCCB)) in forward region and gross inefficiency in their functioning (Buldana District Central Cooperative Bank (BDCCB)) in the backward region of the state, due mainly to their mounting NPAs or overdues’. Because of substantially high NPAs, the fixed expenses of these institutions have been adversely affected, which in turn have grossly affected the break-even levels of loan advances and deposits of these credit institutions, so much so that there has been huge gap between the break-even levels of loan advances and deposits and the actual loan advances and deposits. In the case of BDCCB, the deficit between actual and the break-even levels are so high (about 60 per cent) that it will be well-nigh impossible for it to overcome this situation. High transaction costs, poor repayment performance, and mounting NPAs are the root causes of the moribund state of rural credit delivery through these cooperatives. Further, it is to be noted that the estimated trend over the past two decades in Maharashtra shows a slower growth in institutional finances through credit cooperatives and also in their membership during the decade of economic reforms (1991-2000) as against the decade preceding it (1980-1990). On the other hand, the outstanding loans of these cooperatives have grown at much faster rate as compared to their loan advances during both pre- and post economic reform periods. The slower growth in institutional finance through credit cooperatives during the decade of 1991-2000 is mainly due to adverse environment created by the financial sector reforms. Due to unfavourable policy framework, much of the deposits of the credit cooperatives are going into investments, instead of advancing loans to the farming sector. As a result, the C-D ratios of these credit cooperatives have been adversely affected. With a view to revive agricultural credit delivery through cooperatives, the need of the hour is to adopt innovative approaches like linking of SHGs and NGOs with mainstream financial institutions, including cooperatives. Such linkages are reported to have not only reduced transaction costs but also ensured better repayment performance. In brief, in order to rejuvenate rural credit delivery system through cooperatives, the root problems facing the system, viz., high transaction cost, poor recovery performance, and NPAs, need to be tackled with more fiscal jurisprudence reserving exemplary punishment for willful defaults, especially by large farmers, and the individual cases who have borrowed credit from these institutions. In fact, insofar as rural credit delivery through credit cooperatives is concerned, the focus should be on strategies that are required for tackling issues such as sustainability and viability, operational efficiency, recovery performance, small farmer coverage and balanced sectoral development.
    Keywords: Financial Health Credit Cooperatives
    JEL: R11
    Date: 2007–07–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:3949&r=mfd

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