nep-ltv New Economics Papers
on Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty
Issue of 2023‒03‒20
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  2. Long COVID in the United States By David G. Blanchflower; Alex Bryson
  3. Gender Wage Gap among Young Adults: A Comparison across British Cohorts By Foliano, Francesca; Bryson, Alex; Joshi, Heather; Wielgoszewska, Bożena; Wilkinson, David
  4. The Impact of the "Coding Girls" Program on High School Students' Educational Choices By Stefania Basiglio; Daniela Del Boca; Chiara Pronzato

  1. By: John List
    Abstract: In 2019 I put together a summary of data from my field experiments website that pertained to framed field experiments. Several people have asked me if I have an update. In this document I update all figures and numbers to show the details for 2022. I also include the description from the 2019 paper below with appropriate additions
    Date: 2023
  2. By: David G. Blanchflower (Bruce V. Rauner Professor of Economics, Department of Economics, Dartmouth College, Adam Smith Business School, University of Glasgow, GLO, Bloomberg and NBER); Alex Bryson (Professor of Quantitative Social Science, Social Research Institute, University College London, NIESR and IZA)
    Abstract: Although yet to be clearly identified as a clinical condition, there is immense concern at the health and wellbeing consequences of long COVID. Using data collected from nearly half a million Americans in the period June 2022-December 2022 in the US Census Bureau’s Household Pulse Survey (HPS), we find 14 percent reported suffering long COVID at some point, half of whom reported it at the time of the survey. Its incidence varies markedly across the United States – from 11 percent in Hawaii to 18 percent in West Virginia – and is higher for women than men, among Whites compared with Blacks and Asians, and declines with rising education and income. It peaks in midlife in the same way as negative affect. Ever having had long COVID is strongly associated with negative affect (anxiety, depression, worry and a lack of interest in things). The effect is larger among those who currently report long COVID, especially if they report severe symptoms. In contrast, those who report having had short COVID report higher wellbeing than those who report never having had COVID. Long COVID is also strongly associated with physical mobility problems, and with problems dressing and bathing. It is also associated with mental problems as indicated by recall and understanding difficulties. Again, the associations are strongest among those who currently report long COVID, while those who said they had had short COVID have fewer physical and mental problems than those who report never having had COVID. Vaccination is associated with lower negative affect, including among those who reported having had long COVID.
    Keywords: Long COVID; negative affect; anxiety; depression; mobility problems; mental health; vaccine
    JEL: I1 I31
    Date: 2023–02–01
  3. By: Foliano, Francesca (UCL Institute of Education); Bryson, Alex (University College London); Joshi, Heather (University College London); Wielgoszewska, Bożena (University College London); Wilkinson, David (University College London)
    Abstract: We study the evolution of the gender wage gap among young adults in Britain between 1972 and 2015 using data from four British cohorts born in 1946, 1958, 1970 and 1989/90 on early life factors, human capital, family formation and job characteristics. We account for non-random selection of men and women into the labour market and compare the gender wage gap among graduates and non-graduates. The raw and covariate adjusted gender wage gaps at the mean decline over the period among nongraduates, but they rise among young graduates. The gender wage gap across the wage distribution narrows over time for lower wages. Adjusting for positive selection into employment increases the size of the gender wage gap in earlier cohorts, but selection is not apparent in the two most recent cohorts. Thus the rate of convergence in the wages of young men and women is understated when estimates do not adjust for positive selection in earlier cohorts. Differences in traditional human capital variables explain only a very small component of the gender wage gaps among young people in all four cohorts, but occupational gender segregation plays an important role in the later cohorts.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, birth cohorts, employment selection, graduates, occupational segregation
    JEL: J16 J2 J3
    Date: 2023–02
  4. By: Stefania Basiglio (University of Bari); Daniela Del Boca (University of Turin and Collegio Carlo Alberto); Chiara Pronzato (University of Turin)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the impact of “Coding Girls†, an educational enrichment program designed to address the underrepresentation of women and girls in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in Italy by stimulating young female students’ interest in programming and science and encouraging them to consider careers in STEMrelated fields. Implemented in ten secondary schools in Turin (Italy) over the period 2019- 2022, the Coding Girls program provided lab-based computer programming instruction as well as introductory talks on specific topics in STEM. The program was evaluated by randomized controlled trial. Our results show that Coding Girls had a significant and positive impact on male and female students’ programming skills and on their awareness of gender differences in the workforce. However, it did not seem to affect girls’ aspirations to pursue higher education in STEM-related disciplines. The gender stereotypes children are exposed to from a very young age tend to steer girls and young women to the humanities. This bias is deeply entrenched and difficult to modify.
    Keywords: gender, STEM, higher educational choice
    JEL: J16 I23
    Date: 2023–02

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