nep-ltv New Economics Papers
on Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty
Issue of 2022‒10‒17
five papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Do Individuals Adapt to All Types of Housing Transitions? By Andrew E. Clark; Luis Diaz-Serrano
  2. Patterns, Determinants, and Consequences of Ability Tracking: Evidence from Texas Public Schools By Kate Antonovics; Sandra E. Black; Julie Berry Cullen; Akiva Yonah Meiselman
  3. The Rise of Age-Friendly Jobs By Daron Acemoglu; Nicolaj Søndergaard Mühlbach; Andrew J. Scott
  4. Working from Home Around the World By Aksoy, Cevat Giray; Barrero, Jose Maria; Bloom, Nicholas; Davis, Steven J.; Dolls, Mathias; Zarate, Pablo
  5. Too Healthy to Fall Sick? Longevity Expectations and Protective Health Behaviours during the First Wave of Covid-19 By Martina Celidoni; Joan Costa-i-Font; Luca Salmasi

  1. By: Andrew E. Clark; Luis Diaz-Serrano
    Abstract: This paper provides one of the first tests of adaptation to the complete set of residential transitions. We use long-run SOEP panel data and consider the impact of all housing transitions, whether or not they involve a change in housing tenure or geographical movement, on both life satisfaction and housing satisfaction. Controlling for individual characteristics, some residential transitions affect life satisfaction only little, while all transitions have a significant effect on housing satisfaction. This latter is particularly large for renters who become homeowners and move geographically, and for renters who move without changing tenure status. Regarding housing satisfaction, we only uncover evidence of some adaptation for renter-renter moves. Losing homeowner status is the only transition that produces lower housing satisfaction, and here the effect seems to become even more negative over time.
    Keywords: Housing, adaptation, well-being, SOEP
    JEL: D19 R21
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:diw:diwsop:diw_sp1168&r=
  2. By: Kate Antonovics; Sandra E. Black; Julie Berry Cullen; Akiva Yonah Meiselman
    Abstract: Schools often track students to classes based on ability. Proponents of tracking argue it is a low-cost tool to improve learning since instruction is more effective when students are more homogeneous, while opponents argue it exacerbates initial differences in opportunities without strong evidence of efficacy. In fact, little is known about the pervasiveness or determinants of ability tracking in the US. To fill this gap, we use detailed administrative data from Texas to estimate the extent of tracking within schools for grades 4 through 8 over the years 2011-2019. We find substantial tracking; tracking within schools overwhelms any sorting by ability that takes place across schools. The most important determinant of tracking is heterogeneity in student ability, and schools operationalize tracking through the classification of students into categories such as gifted and disabled and curricular differentiation. When we examine how tracking changes in response to educational policies, we see that schools decrease tracking in response to accountability pressures. Finally, when we explore how exposure to tracking correlates with student mobility in the achievement distribution, we find positive effects on high-achieving students with no negative effects on low-achieving students, suggesting that tracking may increase inequality by raising the ceiling.
    Keywords: ability tracking, achievement mobility
    JEL: H75 I21 I24 I28
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ces:ceswps:_9928&r=
  3. By: Daron Acemoglu; Nicolaj Søndergaard Mühlbach; Andrew J. Scott
    Abstract: In 1990, one in five U.S. workers were aged over 50 years whereas today it is one in three. One possible explanation for this is that occupations have become more accommodating to the preferences of older workers. We explore this by constructing an “age-friendliness” index for occupations. We use Natural Language Processing to measure the degree of overlap between textual descriptions of occupations and characteristics which define age friendliness. Our index provides an approximation to rankings produced by survey participants and has predictive power for the occupational share of older workers. We find that between 1990 and 2020 around three quarters of occupations have seen their age-friendliness increase and employment in above-average age-friendly occupations has risen by 49 million. However, older workers have not benefited disproportionately from this rise, with substantial gains going to younger females and college graduates and with male non-college educated workers losing out the most. These findings point to the need to frame the rise of age-friendly jobs in the context of other labour market trends and imperfections. Purely age-based policies are insufficient given both heterogeneity amongst older workers as well as similarities between groups of older and younger workers. The latter is especially apparent in the overlapping appeal of specific occupational characteristics.
    JEL: E24 J11 J24 J62
    Date: 2022–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:30463&r=
  4. By: Aksoy, Cevat Giray (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development); Barrero, Jose Maria (Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México Business School); Bloom, Nicholas (Stanford University); Davis, Steven J. (University of Chicago); Dolls, Mathias (Ifo Institute for Economic Research); Zarate, Pablo (Princeton University)
    Abstract: The pandemic triggered a large, lasting shift to work from home (WFH). To study this shift, we survey full-time workers who finished primary school in 27 countries as of mid 2021 and early 2022. Our cross-country comparisons control for age, gender, education, and industry and treat the U.S. mean as the baseline. We find, first, that WFH averages 1.5 days per week in our sample, ranging widely across countries. Second, employers plan an average of 0.7 WFH days per week after the pandemic, but workers want 1.7 days. Third, employees value the option to WFH 2-3 days per week at 5 percent of pay, on average, with higher valuations for women, people with children and those with longer commutes. Fourth, most employees were favorably surprised by their WFH productivity during the pandemic. Fifth, looking across individuals, employer plans for WFH levels after the pandemic rise strongly with WFH productivity surprises during the pandemic. Sixth, looking across countries, planned WFH levels rise with the cumulative stringency of government-mandated lockdowns during the pandemic. We draw on these results to explain the big shift to WFH and to consider some implications for workers, organization, cities, and the pace of innovation.
    Keywords: work from home, preferences over working arrangements, commute times, COVID-19, productivity surprises, government lockdown effects, innovation, cities
    JEL: J2 D22 E24 L23
    Date: 2022–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp15540&r=
  5. By: Martina Celidoni; Joan Costa-i-Font; Luca Salmasi
    Abstract: Longevity expectations (LE) are subjective assessments of future health status that can influence a number of individual health protective decisions. This is especially true during a pandemic such as COVID-19, as the risk of ill health depends more than ever on such protective decisions. This paper exploits differences in LE to examine the causal effect of LE on protective health behaviours and a number of decisions around access to health care, using data from the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe. We draw on an instrumental variable strategy exploiting individual level information on parental age at death. Consistent with the too healthy to be sick hypothesis, we find that individuals with higher expected longevity are more likely to engage in protective behaviours, and are less likely to forgo medical treatment. We estimate that a one standard deviation increase in expected longevity increases the probability to comply always with social distancing by 0.6%, to meet people less often by 0.4% and decreases the probability to forgo any medical treatment by 0.6%. Our estimates vary depending on the availability of health care, as well as individuals' gender and pre-existing health conditions.
    Keywords: longevity expectations, private information, health behaviours, forgone medical treatment, health capital, SHARE, Europe, instrumental variables
    JEL: I12 I18
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ces:ceswps:_9899&r=

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