nep-ltv New Economics Papers
on Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty
Issue of 2022‒09‒05
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Nowcasting the impact of COVID-19 on education, intergenerational mobility and earnings inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa By Neidhöfer, Guido; Lustig, Nora; Larroulet, Patricio
  2. Job Satisfaction and Trade Union Membership in Germany By Goerke, Laszlo; Huang, Yue
  3. Is the intergenerational transmission of overweight 'gender assortative'? By Costa-Font, Joan; Jofre-Bonet, Mireia
  4. Social Capital II: Determinants of Economic Connectedness By Raj Chetty; Matthew O. Jackson; Theresa Kuchler; Johannes Stroebel; Nathaniel Hendren; Robert B. Fluegge; Sara Gong; Federico Gonzalez; Armelle Grondin; Matthew Jacob; Drew Johnston; Martin Koenen; Eduardo Laguna-Muggenburg; Florian Mudekereza; Tom Rutter; Nicolaj Thor; Wilbur Townsend; Ruby Zhang; Mike Bailey; Pablo Barberá; Monica Bhole; Nils Wernerfelt

  1. By: Neidhöfer, Guido; Lustig, Nora; Larroulet, Patricio
    Abstract: Using microsimulations, we nowcast the impact of learning losses caused by COVID-19 on secondary school completion rates, intergenerational mobility of education, and long-run earnings inequality in eight countries Sub-Saharan Africa. On average, secondary school completion rates decrease by 12 percentage points overall and by 16 points for children with low-educated parents. Interestingly, in most countries the gender gap diminishes because for men the projected decrease in secondary school completion is higher. However, a small additional impact on girls' education due to the Covid-19 induced rise in teenage pregnancy is observed in some countries. Intergenerational mobility of education decreases from 1 to close to 50 percent, depending on the country. As a result of the heterogeneous reduction in average years of schooling for advantaged vs. disadvantaged children, earnings inequality could increase between one and four Gini points, depending on the assumptions.
    Keywords: COVID-19,lockdowns,human capital,school closures,intergenerational persistence,education,inequality,Africa
    JEL: I24 I38 J62
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:zewdip:22022&r=
  2. By: Goerke, Laszlo (IAAEU, University of Trier); Huang, Yue (University of Trier)
    Abstract: Using panel data from 1985 to 2019, we provide the first comprehensive investigation of the relationship between trade union membership and job satisfaction in Germany. Cross-sectional analyses reveal a negative correlation, while fixed effects estimates indicate an insignificant relationship. This is also true if we incorporate information on collective bargaining coverage or the existence of works councils in subsamples for which this data is available. To address the endogeneity of union membership, we generate information on the union density individuals faced in their industry and region. This time-variant IV suggests no causal impact of individual union membership on job satisfaction. Finally, using different estimation models, we investigate whether the effects vary by gender, age, birth year, and employment status.
    Keywords: sorting, job satisfaction, instrumental variable, German socio-economic panel, exit-voice framework, trade union membership
    JEL: I31 J28 J51
    Date: 2022–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp15459&r=
  3. By: Costa-Font, Joan; Jofre-Bonet, Mireia
    Abstract: Using almost two decades worth of data from the Health Survey for England, that contain representative records of clinically measured weight and height, this paper studies whether parents and children's overweight (including obesity) is ‘gender assortative’. Our findings suggest that the intergenerational transmission of parent's overweight differs by children's sex and is statistically different for fathers and mothers. Gender assortative overweight is stronger among pre-school age and school-aged children. The parent-child associations are large and precisely estimated, heterogeneous by children's age and sex and stronger among white children and children of older parents. These results suggest there is a gender assortative intergenerational association of overweight.
    Keywords: Gender-assortative transmission; Gender assortative; Child obesity; Child overweight; Role models; Inter-generational transmission
    JEL: I18
    Date: 2020–12–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:105570&r=
  4. By: Raj Chetty; Matthew O. Jackson; Theresa Kuchler; Johannes Stroebel; Nathaniel Hendren; Robert B. Fluegge; Sara Gong; Federico Gonzalez; Armelle Grondin; Matthew Jacob; Drew Johnston; Martin Koenen; Eduardo Laguna-Muggenburg; Florian Mudekereza; Tom Rutter; Nicolaj Thor; Wilbur Townsend; Ruby Zhang; Mike Bailey; Pablo Barberá; Monica Bhole; Nils Wernerfelt
    Abstract: Low levels of social interaction across class lines have generated widespread concern and are associated with worse outcomes, such as lower rates of upward income mobility. Here, we analyze the determinants of cross-class interaction using data from Facebook, building upon the analysis in the first paper in this series. We show that about half of the social disconnection across socioeconomic lines—measured as the difference in the share of high-socioeconomic status (SES) friends between low- and high-SES people—is explained by differences in exposure to high- SES people in groups such as schools and religious organizations. The other half is explained by friending bias—the tendency for low-SES people to befriend high-SES people at lower rates even conditional on exposure. Friending bias is shaped by the structure of the groups in which people interact. For example, friending bias is higher in larger and more diverse groups and lower in religious organizations than in schools and workplaces. Distinguishing exposure from friending bias is helpful for identifying interventions to increase cross-SES friendships (economic connectedness). Using fluctuations in the share of high-SES students across high school cohorts, we show that increases in high-SES exposure lead low-SES people to form more friendships with high-SES people in schools that exhibit low levels of friending bias. Hence, socioeconomic integration can increase economic connectedness in communities where friending bias is low. In contrast, when friending bias is high, increasing cross-SES interaction among existing members may be necessary to increase economic connectedness. To support such efforts, we release privacy-protected statistics on economic connectedness, exposure, and friending bias for each ZIP code, high school, and college in the U.S. at www.socialcapital.org.
    JEL: J0 R0
    Date: 2022–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:30314&r=

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