nep-ltv New Economics Papers
on Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty
Issue of 2022‒08‒22
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Time Use and the Geography of Economic Opportunity By Mookerjee, Sulagna; Pedersen, John D.; Slichter, David
  2. Second-Generation Immigrants and Native Attitudes Toward Immigrants in Europe By Barrera, Oscar; Bensidoun, Isabelle; Edo, Anthony
  3. Early Childcare Duration and Students’ Later Outcomes in Europe By Daniela Del Boca; Chiara Monfardini; Sarah Grace See
  4. Does Growing up in Economic Hard Times Increase Compassion? The Case of Attitudes towards Immigration By Maria Cotofan; Robert Dur; Stephan Meier

  1. By: Mookerjee, Sulagna (Binghamton University, New York); Pedersen, John D. (Federal Communications Commission); Slichter, David (Binghamton University, New York)
    Abstract: The community in which a child is raised has a substantial effect on their income in adulthood. To help understand what is different about communities which produce higher incomes, we document how time use differs between communities which increase vs. decrease incomes. The main differences are that, in areas which produce higher incomes, people spend more time at work, and adults spend more time with children. The data do not support some theories of what makes communities effective at producing human capital: People do not spend more time on educational activities, or on community events and institutions, in areas which increase incomes by more.
    Keywords: time use, intergenerational mobility
    JEL: D13 J22 J24 J62
    Date: 2022–07
  2. By: Barrera, Oscar (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne); Bensidoun, Isabelle (CEPII, Paris); Edo, Anthony (CEPII, Paris)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role played by immigrants and their children in shaping native attitudes toward immigrants in the European Union. By exploiting the 2017 Special Eurobarometer on immigrant integration, we show that countries with a relatively high share of immigrants are more likely to believe that immigrants are a burden on the welfare system and worsen crime. In contrast, native opinions on the impact of immigration on culture and the labor market are unrelated to the presence of immigrants. We also find that the effects of second-generation immigrants on pro-immigrant attitudes toward security and fiscal concerns are positive (as opposed to first-generation immigrants). Finally, we find no impact of the immigrant share on the attitudes of natives supporting far-left or left political parties, while it is the most negative among respondents affiliated with far-right parties.
    Keywords: immigration, second-generation immigrants, attitudes toward immigrants, public opinion
    JEL: F22 J15 P16
    Date: 2022–06
  3. By: Daniela Del Boca (University of Turin and Collegio Carlo Alberto); Chiara Monfardini; Sarah Grace See
    Abstract: The importance of investment in early childhood education (ECE) has been widely documented in the literature. Among the benefits, particularly for children from disadvantaged backgrounds, is its potential to mitigate educational inequality. However, some evidence also suggests that the positive effects of ECE on later outcomes tend to dissipate over time, leaving children who attended such programmes no better off academically than those who did not. This paper studies the relationship between students’ years spent in ECE and the results of their educational assessment outcomes at age 15. Using PISA survey data for fourteen European countries from 2015 and 2018, we conduct a cross- country comparison of student performance in reading, mathematics, and science, correlating the results to early childcare and pre-primary school attendance. Our findings show that participation in early childcare is associated with better assessments at age 15, but that the benefit is nonlinear and peaks at 3-4 years of childcare attendance. Examination of gender heterogeneity patterns reveals differences in girls’ and boys’ performance on the assessments; however, there are no gender differences in the relationship between childcare participation and test outcomes. We also explore differences related to the type of educational system attended and find distinct results for the unitary and separate settings.
    Keywords: early childhood education, pre-primary, early investments, human capital, assessments, gender, institution, unitary, separate, PISA
    JEL: J13 J16
  4. By: Maria Cotofan (Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics); Robert Dur (Erasmus University Rotterdam, Tinbergen Institute, CESifo, and IZA); Stephan Meier (Columbia Business School, CESifo, and IZA)
    Abstract: Recent evidence shows that people who grew up in economic hard times more strongly favor government redistribution and are more compassionate towards the poor. We investigate how inclusive this increase in compassion is by studying how macroeconomic conditions experienced during young adulthood affect immigration attitudes. Using US and global data, we show that experiencing bad macroeconomic circumstances strengthen anti-immigration attitudes for life. Moreover, we find that people become generally more outgroup hostile. Our results thus suggest that the underlying motive for more government redistribution is not a universal increase in compassion, but more self-interested and restricted to one’s ingroup.
    Keywords: Immigration, Attitudes, Social preferences, Parochialism, Redistribution, Macroeconomic conditions, Impressionable years
    JEL: J1 D9 E7
    Date: 2022–07–28

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