nep-ltv New Economics Papers
on Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty
Issue of 2022‒05‒09
six papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. On Criteria for Evaluating Social Programs By García, Jorge Luis; Heckman, James J.
  2. The Global Inequality Boomerang By Kanbur, Ravi; Ortiz-Juarez, Eduardo; Sumner, Andy
  3. Time and Risk Preferences of Children Predict Health Behaviors but not BMI By Greta List; John List; Lina Ramirez; Anya Samek
  4. Industries, Mega Firms, and Increasing Inequality By Haltiwanger, John C.; Hyatt, Henry R.; Spletzer, James R.
  5. You are what your parents expect: Height and local reference points By Fan Wang; Esteban Puentes; Jere R. Behrman; Fl\'avio Cunha
  6. The (Un)Importance of Inheritance By Sandra E. Black; Paul J. Devereux; Fanny Landaud; Kjell G. Salvanes

  1. By: García, Jorge Luis (Clemson University); Heckman, James J. (University of Chicago)
    Abstract: This paper examines some recently proposed criteria for evaluation of the net social benefits of social programs.
    Keywords: cost-benefit analysis, marginal value of public funds
    JEL: D61
    Date: 2022–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp15188&r=
  2. By: Kanbur, Ravi (Cornell University); Ortiz-Juarez, Eduardo (King's College London); Sumner, Andy (King's College London)
    Abstract: In this paper we argue that the decline in global inequality over the last decades has spurred a 'sunshine' narrative of falling global inequality that has been rather oversold, in the sense, we argue, it is likely to be temporary. We argue the decline in global inequality will reverse due to changes in the between-country component. We find there is a potentially startling global inequality 'boomerang', possibly in the mid-to-late 2020s, which would have happened even if there were no pandemic, and that the pandemic is likely to bring forward the global inequality boomerang.
    Keywords: global inequality, inequality boomerang, COVID-19
    JEL: D31 D63 O15
    Date: 2022–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp15161&r=
  3. By: Greta List; John List; Lina Ramirez; Anya Samek
    Abstract: We conduct experiments with 720 children ages 9-11 to evaluate the relationship of time and risk preferences with health. Children who are more patient report consuming fewer unhealthy calories and spending less time on sedentary activities such as video games. Children who are more risk seeking report engaging in more exercise and more screen time. However, time and risk preferences are not predictive of body mass index (BMI). Moreover, some of the negative health behaviors, such as screen time, are associated with lower - rather than higher - BMI.
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:feb:artefa:00751&r=
  4. By: Haltiwanger, John C. (University of Maryland); Hyatt, Henry R. (U.S. Census Bureau); Spletzer, James R. (U.S. Census Bureau)
    Abstract: Most of the rise in overall earnings inequality is accounted for by rising between-industry dispersion from about ten percent of 4-digit NAICS industries. These thirty industries are in the tails of the earnings distribution, and are clustered especially in high-paying high-tech and low-paying retail sectors. The remaining ninety percent of industries contribute little to between-industry earnings inequality. The rise of employment in mega firms is concentrated in the thirty industries that dominate rising earnings inequality. Among these industries, earnings differentials for the mega firms relative to small firms decline in the low-paying industries but increase in the high-paying industries. We also find that increased sorting and segregation of workers across firms mainly occurs between industries rather than within industries.
    Keywords: inequality, firm size, industry, wage differentials, sorting, segregation, pay premium
    JEL: J31 J21
    Date: 2022–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp15197&r=
  5. By: Fan Wang; Esteban Puentes; Jere R. Behrman; Fl\'avio Cunha
    Abstract: Recent estimates are that about 150 million children under five years of age are stunted, with substantial negative consequences for their schooling, cognitive skills, health, and economic productivity. Therefore, understanding what determines such growth retardation is significant for designing public policies that aim to address this issue. We build a model for nutritional choices and health with reference-dependent preferences. Parents care about the health of their children relative to some reference population. In our empirical model, we use height as the health outcome that parents target. Reference height is an equilibrium object determined by earlier cohorts' parents' nutritional choices in the same village. We explore the exogenous variation in reference height produced by a protein-supplementation experiment in Guatemala to estimate our model's parameters. We use our model to decompose the impact of the protein intervention on height into price and reference-point effects. We find that the changes in reference points account for 65% of the height difference between two-year-old children in experimental and control villages in the sixth annual cohort born after the initiation of the intervention.
    Date: 2022–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2204.01933&r=
  6. By: Sandra E. Black; Paul J. Devereux; Fanny Landaud; Kjell G. Salvanes
    Abstract: Transfers from parents—either in the form of gifts or inheritances—have received much attention as a source of inequality. This paper uses a 19-year panel of administrative data for the population of Norway to examine the share of the Total Inflows available to an individual (defined as the capitalized sum of net labor income, government transfers, and gifts and inheritances received over the period) accounted for by capitalized gifts and inheritances. Perhaps surprisingly, we find that gifts and inheritances represent a small share of Total Inflows; this is true across the distribution of Total Inflows, as well as at all levels of net wealth at a point in time. Gifts and inheritances are only an important source of income flows among those who have very wealthy parents. Additionally, gifts and inheritances have very little effect on the distribution of Total Inflows – when we do a counterfactual Total Inflows distribution with zero gifts and inheritances, it is not much different from the actual distribution. Our findings suggest that inheritance taxes may do little to mitigate the extreme wealth inequality in society.
    Keywords: wealth, inequality, intergenerational mobility
    JEL: G51 J01
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ces:ceswps:_9566&r=

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