nep-ltv New Economics Papers
on Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty
Issue of 2021‒04‒12
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. The Fall in Income Inequality during COVID-19 in Five European Countries By Andrew Clark; Conchita Ambrosio; Anthony Lepinteur
  2. Artificial Intelligence, Globalization, and Strategies for Economic Development By Anton Korinek; Joseph E. Stiglitz
  3. Inequality and Social Policy in Latin America By Nora Lustig
  4. Homophily, Peer Effects, and Dishonesty By Liza Charroin; Bernard Fortin; Marie Claire Villeval

  1. By: Andrew Clark (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Conchita Ambrosio (University of Luxembourg [Luxembourg]); Anthony Lepinteur (University of Luxembourg [Luxembourg])
    Abstract: We here use panel data from the COME-HERE survey to track income inequality during COVID-19 in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Sweden. Relative inequality in equivalent household disposable income among individuals changed in a hump-shaped way over 2020. An initial rise from January to May was more than reversed by September. Absolute inequality also fell over this period. As such, policy responses may have been of more benefit for the poorer than for the richer.
    Keywords: COVID-19,COME-HERE,Income Inequality
    Date: 2021–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:psewpa:halshs-03185534&r=all
  2. By: Anton Korinek (Darden School of Business, University of Virginia); Joseph E. Stiglitz (Columbia University)
    Abstract: Progress in artificial intelligence and related forms of automation technologies threatens to reverse the gains that developing countries and emerging markets have experienced from integrating into the world economy over the past half century, aggravating poverty and inequality. The new technologies have the tendency to be labor-saving, resource-saving, and to give rise to winner-takes-all dynamics that advantage developed countries. We analyze the economic forces behind these developments and describe economic policies that would mitigate the adverse effects on developing and emerging economies while leveraging the potential gains from technological advances. We also describe reforms to our global system of economic governance that would share the benefits of AI more widely with developing countries.
    Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, inequality, technological development, redistribution.
    JEL: E64 D63 O3
    Date: 2021–02–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:thk:wpaper:inetwp146&r=all
  3. By: Nora Lustig (Stone Center for Latin American Studies, Department of Economics, Tulane University, Commitment to Equity Institute (CEQ).)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the evolution and determinants of inequality between 1990 and 2017 in Latin America. Throughout the period, inequality in the region has demonstrated three trends: it increased during the 1990s; decreased between 2002 and 2013; and, since 2014, it has remained constant or even increased depending on the country. The reduction of inequality in the second period corresponded to two main changes in social policy: (I) the expansion in access to education in the previous period, which led to a decrease in the salary gap; and (II) the expansion and progresivity of monetary transfers. However, despite improvements in income distribution, in recent years, there has been a wave of protests in various countries. This paper proposes possible explanations of this apparently paradoxical phenomenon. Finally, this paper analyzes the impact of fiscal policy on inequality and poverty using comparative data from fiscal incidence analysis. Although in all countries the combination of taxes, social spending, and consumption subsidies reduces inequality, it does not always reduce poverty.
    Keywords: fiscal incidence, inequality, poverty, taxes, social spending, Latin America
    JEL: I38 H22 D63 D31 D74
    Date: 2020–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tul:ceqwps:94&r=all
  4. By: Liza Charroin (Sorbonne Economic Centre, University of Paris 1); Bernard Fortin (Economics Department, Laval University, Québec, CIRPÉE, and CIRANO, Canada. IZA, Bonn, Germany); Marie Claire Villeval (Univ Lyon, CNRS, GATE UMR 5824, 93 Chemin des Mouilles, F-69130, Ecully, France. IZA, Bonn, Germany)
    Abstract: If individuals tend to behave like their peers, is it because of conformity, that is, the preference of people to align behavior with the behavior of their peers; homophily, that is, the tendency of people to bond with similar others; or both? We address this question in the context of an ethical dilemma. Using a peer effect model allowing for homophily, we designed a real-effort laboratory experiment in which individuals could misreport their performance to earn more. Our results reveal a preference for conformity and for homophily in the selection of peers, but only among participants who were cheating in isolation. The size of peer effects is similar when identical peers were randomly assigned and when they were selected by individuals. We thus jointly reject the presence of a self-selection bias in the peer effect estimates and of a link strength effect.
    Keywords: Peer Effects, Homophily, Dishonesty, Self-Selection Bias, Experiment
    JEL: C92 D83 D85 D91
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:gat:wpaper:2107&r=all

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