nep-ltv New Economics Papers
on Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty
Issue of 2020‒04‒13
six papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Dual Labour Markets Revisited By Samuel Bentolila; Juan J. Dolado; Juan F. Jimeno
  2. Culture and Gender Allocation of Tasks: Source Country Characteristics and the Division of Non-Market Work among US Immigrants By Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn; Matthew Comey; Amanda Eng; Pamela Meyerhofer; Alexander Willén
  3. Early Childhood Education and Life-cycle Health By García, Jorge Luis; Heckman, James J.
  4. Comparing Distributions of Ordinal Data By Jenkins, Stephen P.
  5. Changes in Assortative Matching and Inequality in Income: Evidence for the UK By Pierre-Andre Chiappori; Monica Costa Dias; Sam Crossman; Costas Meghir
  6. Cash Transfer Programs and Household Labor Supply By Daniela Del Boca; Chiara Pronzato; Giuseppe Sorrenti

  1. By: Samuel Bentolila (CEMFI, Centro de Estudios Monetarios y Financieros); Juan J. Dolado (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid); Juan F. Jimeno (Banco de España)
    Abstract: This paper provides an overview of recent research on dual labour markets. Theoretical and empirical contributions on the labour-market effects of dual employment protection legislation are revisited, as well as factors behind its resilience and policies geared towards correcting its negative economic and social consequences. The topics covered include the stepping-stone or dead-end nature of temporary contracts, their effects on employment, unemployment, churn, training, productivity growth, wages, and labour market inflows and outflows. The paper reviews both theoretical advances and relevant policy discussions on a very relevant topic in many European countries, in particular in several that had a very poor employment performance during the recent global economic and financial crisis.
    Keywords: Dual labor markets, employment protection, temporary contracts, job creation, job destruction, churn.
    JEL: J23 J32 J63
    Date: 2019–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cmf:wpaper:wp2019_1902&r=all
  2. By: Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn; Matthew Comey; Amanda Eng; Pamela Meyerhofer; Alexander Willén
    Abstract: There is a well-known gender difference in time allocation within the household, which has important implications for gender differences in labor market outcomes. We ask how malleable this gender difference in time allocation is to culture. In particular, we ask if US immigrants allocate tasks differently depending upon the characteristics of the source countries from which they emigrated. Using data from the 2003-2017 waves of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), we find that first-generation immigrants, both women and men, from source countries with more gender equality (as measured by the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Index) allocate tasks more equally, while those from less gender equal source countries allocate tasks more traditionally. These results are robust to controls for immigration cohort, years since migration, and other own and spouse characteristics. There is also some indication of an effect of parent source country gender equality for second-generation immigrants, particularly for second-generation men with children. Our findings suggest that broader cultural factors do influence the gender division of labor in the household.
    Keywords: Housework, childcare, gender, immigration, time allocation
    JEL: J13 J15 J16 J22
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:diw:diwwpp:dp1858&r=all
  3. By: García, Jorge Luis (Clemson University); Heckman, James J. (University of Chicago)
    Abstract: This paper forecasts the life-cycle treatment effects on health of a high-quality early childhood program. Our predictions combine microsimulation using non-experimental data with experimental data from a midlife long-term follow-up. The follow-up incorporated a full epidemiological exam. The program mainly benefits males and significantly reduces the prevalence of heart disease, stroke, cancer, and mortality across the life-cycle. For men, we estimate an average reduction of 3.8 disability-adjusted years (DALYs). The reduction in DALYs is relatively small for women. The gain in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) is almost enough to offset all of the costs associated with program implementation for males and half of program costs for women.
    Keywords: early childhood education, life-cycle health, long-term forecasts, program evaluation, randomized trials
    JEL: I10 J13 I28 C93
    Date: 2020–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp13064&r=all
  4. By: Jenkins, Stephen P. (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: To compare distributions of ordinal data such as individuals' responses on Likert-type scale variables summarizing subjective well-being, we should not apply the toolbox of methods developed for cardinal variables such as income. Instead we should use an analogous toolbox which takes account of the ordinal nature of the responses. This paper reviews these methods and introduces a new Stata command ineqord for undertaking distributional comparisons. As the empirical illustrations demonstrate, ineqord can be used for dominance checks as well as for estimation of indices of polarization and inequality.
    Keywords: inequality, ordinal data, subjective well-being, life satisfaction, Annual Population Survey
    JEL: D31 D63 I31
    Date: 2020–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp13057&r=all
  5. By: Pierre-Andre Chiappori (Dept. of Economics, Columbia University); Monica Costa Dias (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Sam Crossman (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Costas Meghir (Cowles Foundation, Yale University)
    Abstract: The extent to which like-with like marry is important for inequality as well as for the outcomes of children that result from the union. In this paper we present evidence on changes in assortative mating and its implications for household inequality in the UK. Our approach contrasts with others in the literature in that it is consistent with an underlying model of the marriage market. We argue that a key advantage of this approach is that it creates a direct connection between changes in assortativeness in marriage and changes in the value of marriage for the various possible matches by education group. Our empirical results do not show a clear direction in the change in assortativeness in the UK, between the birth cohorts of 1945-54 and 1965-74. We ï¬ nd that changes in assortativeness pushed income inequality up slightly, but that the strong changes in education attainment across the two cohorts contributed to scale down inequality.
    Keywords: Marital sorting, Income inequality
    JEL: D31 J12
    Date: 2020–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cwl:cwldpp:2225&r=all
  6. By: Daniela Del Boca (University of Turin and Collegio Carlo Alberto); Chiara Pronzato (University of Turin); Giuseppe Sorrenti (University of Amsterdam)
    Abstract: Employment helps reduce the risk of poverty. Through a randomized controlled trial, we evaluate the impact of a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program to low-income families with dependent children on household members' labor supply. Recipients are required to attend labor-market-oriented mentoring courses as a condition of the transfer. One year after admission to the program, fathers assigned to the CCT program are more likely to work (+14 percent) than fathers assigned to an unconditional cash transfer program or to a pure control group. No effect arises for mothers. Results seem to be explained by improved family networks and increased parental investments in activities that enhance labor market opportunities.
    Keywords: conditional cash transfers, poverty, household labor supply, mentoring courses
    JEL: I10 I20 J24 I31
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hka:wpaper:2020-021&r=all

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