nep-ltv New Economics Papers
on Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty
Issue of 2020‒01‒06
six papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Inequality Comparisons with Ordinal Data By Jenkins, Stephen P.
  2. Wages, Experience and Training of Women over the Lifecycle By Richard Blundell; Monica Costa Dias; David Goll; Costas Meghir
  3. Older Workers Need Not Apply? Ageist Language in Job Ads and Age Discrimination in Hiring By Ian Burn; Patrick Button; Luis Felipe Munguia Corella; David Neumark
  4. Robots, Labor Markets, and Family Behavior By Anelli, Massimo; Giuntella, Osea; Stella, Luca
  5. Better Off? Distributional Comparisons for Ordinal Data about Personal Well-Being By Jenkins, Stephen P.
  6. Measuring and Using Happiness to Support Public Policies By John F. Helliwell

  1. By: Jenkins, Stephen P. (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: Non-intersection of appropriately-defined Generalized Lorenz (GL) curves is equivalent to a unanimous ranking of distributions of ordinal data by all Cowell and Flachaire (Economica 2017) indices of inequality and by a new index based on GL curve areas. Comparisons of life satisfaction distributions for six countries reveal a substantial number of unanimous inequality rankings.
    Keywords: inequality, ordinal data, subjective well-being, life satisfaction, World Values Survey
    JEL: D31 D63 I31
    Date: 2019–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp12811&r=all
  2. By: Richard Blundell (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London); Monica Costa Dias (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies); David Goll (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Costas Meghir (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Yale University)
    Abstract: We investigate the role of training in reducing the gender wage gap using the UK-BHPS which contains detailed records of training. Using policy changes over an 18 year period we identify the impact of training and work experience on wages, earnings and employment. Based on a lifecycle model and using reforms as a source of exogenous variation we evaluate the role of formal training and experience in de ning the evolution of wages and employment careers, conditional on education. Training is potentially important in compensating for the effects of children, especially for women who left education after completing high school.
    Keywords: inequality;
    Date: 2019–04–29
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ifs:ifsewp:19/08&r=all
  3. By: Ian Burn; Patrick Button; Luis Felipe Munguia Corella; David Neumark
    Abstract: We study the relationships between ageist stereotypes – as reflected in the language used in job ads – and age discrimination in hiring, exploiting the text of job ads and differences in callbacks to older and younger job applicants from a previous resume (correspondence study) field experiment (Neumark, Burn, and Button, 2019). Our analysis uses methods from computational linguistics and machine learning to directly identify, in a field-experiment setting, ageist stereotypes that underlie age discrimination in hiring. We find evidence that language related to stereotypes of older workers sometimes predicts discrimination against older workers. For men, our evidence points most strongly to age stereotypes about physical ability, communication skills, and technology predicting age discrimination, and for women, age stereotypes about communication skills and technology. The method we develop provides a framework for applied researchers analyzing textual data, highlighting the usefulness of various computer science techniques for empirical economics research.
    JEL: J14 J23 J7 J78
    Date: 2019–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:26552&r=all
  4. By: Anelli, Massimo (Bocconi University); Giuntella, Osea (University of Pittsburgh); Stella, Luca (Bocconi University)
    Abstract: Robots have radically changed the demand for skills and the role of workers in production at an unprecedented pace, with little scope for human capital adjustments. This has affected the job stability and the economic perspectives of large parts of the population in all industrialized countries. Recent evidence on the US labor market has shown negative effects of robots on employment and wages. In this study, we examine how exposure to robots and its consequences on job stability and economic uncertainty have affected individual demographic behavior. To establish this relationship, we use data from the American Community Survey and the International Federation of Robotics and we adopt an empirical strategy that relies on regional industry specialization before the advent of robots combined with the growth of robot adoption by industry. We first document the differential effect of robots on the labor market opportunities of men and women. We find that in regions that were more exposed to robots, the gender-income and labor-force-participation gaps declined. We then show that US regions affected by intense robot penetration experienced a decrease in new marriages, and an increase in both divorce and cohabitation. While there was no change in overall fertility rate, marital fertility declined, and there was an increase in out-of-wedlock births. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the changes in labor markets triggered by robot adoption increased uncertainty, reduced the relative marriage-market value of men, and the willingness to commit for the long term.
    Keywords: automation, marriage market, divorce, cohabitation, fertility, gender
    JEL: J12 J13 J21 J23 J24
    Date: 2019–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp12820&r=all
  5. By: Jenkins, Stephen P. (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: How to undertake distributional comparisons when personal well-being is measured using income is well-established. But what if personal well-being is measured using subjective well-being indicators such as life satisfaction or self-assessed health status? Has average well-being increased or well-being inequality decreased? How does the distribution of well-being in New Zealand compare with that in Australia, or between young and old people in New Zealand? This paper addresses questions such as these, stimulated by the increasing weight put on subjective well-being measures by international agencies such as the OECD and national governments including New Zealand's. The paper reviews the methods appropriate for distributional comparisons in the ordinal data context, comparing them with those routinely used for comparisons of income distributions. The methods are illustrated using data from the World Values Survey.
    Keywords: inequality, ordinal data, subjective well-being, life satisfaction, World Values Survey
    JEL: D31 D63 I31
    Date: 2019–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp12810&r=all
  6. By: John F. Helliwell
    Abstract: This paper summarizes the philosophical and empirical grounds for giving a primary role to the evaluations that people make of the quality of their lives. These evaluations permit comparisons among communities, regions, nations and population subgroups, enable the estimation of the relative importance of various sources of happiness, and provide a well-being lens to aid the choice of public policies to support well-being. Available results expose the primacy of social determinants of happiness, and especially the power of generosity and other positive social connections to improve the levels, distribution and sustainability of well-being.
    JEL: D6 I31 Z18
    Date: 2019–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:26529&r=all

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