nep-ltv New Economics Papers
on Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty
Issue of 2018‒11‒26
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. A Different Perspective on the Evolution of UK Income Inequality By Atkinson, Anthony B.; Jenkins, Stephen P.
  2. Inequality in Life Expectancies across Europe By Bohacek, Radim; Bueren, Jesus; Crespo, Laura; Mira, Pedro Solbes; Pijoan-Mas, Josep
  3. Human Capital Inequality: Empirical Evidence By Brant Abbott; Giovanni Gallipoli
  4. Wealth Disparities for Early Childhood Anthropometrics and Skills: Evidence from Chilean Longitudinal Data By Jere R. Behrman; Dante Contreras; Isidora Palma; Esteban Puentes

  1. By: Atkinson, Anthony B. (Nuffield College, Oxford); Jenkins, Stephen P. (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper scrutinizes the conventional wisdom about trends in UK income inequality and also places contemporary inequality in a much longer historical perspective. We combine household survey and income tax data to provide better coverage of all income ranges from the bottom to the very top. We make a case for studying distributions of income between tax units (i.e. not assuming the full income sharing that goes with the use of the household as the unit of analysis) for reasons of principle as well as data harmonization. We present evidence that income inequality in the UK is as least as high today as it was just before the start of World War 2.
    Keywords: inequality, tax unit, household, Gini coefficient, income tax data, household survey data
    JEL: C46 C81 D31
    Date: 2018–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp11884&r=ltv
  2. By: Bohacek, Radim; Bueren, Jesus; Crespo, Laura; Mira, Pedro Solbes; Pijoan-Mas, Josep
    Abstract: We use harmonized household panel data from 10 European countries (SHARE) plus US (HRS) and England (ELSA) to provide novel and comparable measurements of education and gender differences in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy, as well as in the underlying multi-state life tables. Common across countries we find significant interactions between socio-economic status and gender: (a) the education advantage in life expectancy is larger for males, (b) the female advantage in life expectancy is larger among the low educated, (c) education reduces disability years and this added advantage is larger for females, and (d) females suffer more disability years but this disadvantage is hardly present for the high educated. Common across countries we also find that the education advantage in disability years is due to better health transitions by the highly-educated, and that the female disadvantage in disability years is due to better survival in ill-health by females. Looking at the differences across countries, we find that inequalities are largest in Eastern Europe, lowest in Scandinavia, and that the education gradient in life expectancy for males correlates positively with income inequality and negatively with public health spending across countries
    Keywords: education gradient; Gender Gap; healthy life expectancy; Life Expectancy
    JEL: I14 I24 J14 J16
    Date: 2018–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:13184&r=ltv
  3. By: Brant Abbott (University of British Columbia); Giovanni Gallipoli (University of British Columbia)
    Abstract: Wealth inequality has received considerable attention, with mounting evidence of steady and economically meaningful changes in the concentration of wealth ownership. By definition, wealth inequality captures disparity in the ownership of productive capital and other non-labor factors of production. In contrast, in this article we focus on the distribution of human capital and its implications for the accrual of economic resources to individuals and households. Human capital inequality can be thought of as measuring disparity in the ownership of labor factors of production, which are usually compensated in the form of wage income.
    Keywords: Inequality, wealth distribution, human capital
    JEL: J24 D31 I24
    Date: 2018–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hka:wpaper:2018-085&r=ltv
  4. By: Jere R. Behrman (Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania); Dante Contreras (Department of Economics, University of Chile); Isidora Palma (Department of Economics, University of Chile); Esteban Puentes (Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: We study wealth disparities in the formation of anthropometrics, cognitive skills and socio-emotional skills. We use a sample of preschool and early school children in Chile. We extend the previous literature by using longitudinal data, which allow us to study the dynamics of child growth and skills formation. Also, we include information on mother's and father's schooling attainment and mother's cognitive ability. We find that there are no significant anthropometric differences favoring the better-off at birth (and indeed length differences at birth to the disadvantage of the better-off), but during the first 30 months of life wealth disparities in height-for-age z scores (HAZ) favoring the better-off emerge. Moreover, we find wealth disparities in cognitive skills favoring the better-off emerge early in life and continue after children turn 6 years of age. We find no concurrent wealth disparities for and socio-emotional skills. Thus, even though the wealth disparities in birth outcomes if anything favor the poor, significant disparities favoring the rich emerge in the early post-natal period. Mother's education and cognitive ability also are significantly associated with disparities in skill formation.
    Keywords: Wealth disparities, anthropometrics, cognitive skills, socio-emotional skills
    JEL: I14 I31 D30
    Date: 2017–09–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pen:papers:17-019&r=ltv

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