nep-ltv New Economics Papers
on Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty
Issue of 2018‒03‒26
six papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Evaluating Intergenerational Persistence of Economic Preferences: A Large Scale Experiment with Families in Bangladesh By Chowdhury, Shyamal; Sutter, Matthias; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
  2. Religion and the European Union By Benito Arruñada; Matthias Krapf
  3. Overeducation Wage Penalty among Ph.D. Holders: An Unconditional Quantile Regression Analysis on Italian Data By Gaeta, Giuseppe Lucio; Lubrano Lavadera, Giuseppe; Pastore, Francesco
  4. A Comparative Analysis of the Labour Market Performance of University-Educated Immigrants in Australia, Canada, and the United States: Does Policy Matter? By Clarke, Andrew; Ferrer, Ana; Skuterud, Mikal
  5. Online Networks, Social Interaction and Segregation: An Evolutionary Approach By Angelo Antoci; Fabio Sabatini
  6. How 'local' are local labour markets? By Alan Manning; Barbara Petrongolo

  1. By: Chowdhury, Shyamal (University of Sydney); Sutter, Matthias (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods); Zimmermann, Klaus F. (University of Bonn)
    Abstract: Economic preferences – like time, risk and social preferences – have been shown to be very influential for real-life outcomes, such as educational achievements, labor market outcomes, or health status. We contribute to the recent literature that has examined how and when economic preferences are formed, putting particular emphasis on the role of intergenerational transmission of economic preferences within families. Our paper is the first to run incentivized experiments with fathers and mothers and their children by drawing on a unique dataset of 1,999 members of Bangladeshi families, including 911 children, aged 6-17 years, and 544 pairs of mothers and fathers. We find a large degree of intergenerational persistence as the economic preferences of mothers and fathers are significantly positively related to their children's economic preferences. Importantly, we find that socio-economic status of a family has no explanatory power as soon as we control for parents' economic preferences. A series of robustness checks deals with the role of older siblings, the similarity of parental preferences, and the average preferences within a child's village.
    Keywords: intergenerational transmission of preferences, time preferences, risk preferences, social preferences, children, parents, Bangladesh, socio-economic status, experiment
    JEL: C90 D1 D90 D81 D64 J13 J24 J62
    Date: 2018–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp11337&r=ltv
  2. By: Benito Arruñada; Matthias Krapf
    Abstract: We review a recent literature on cultural differences across euro member states.We point out that this literature fails to address cultural differences between Protestants and Catholics, which are likely a major underlying reason for cross-country differences. We argue that confessional culture explains why Catholic countries tend to have weaker institutions but are more open to economic and political integration. EU policies after the economic crisis looked clumsy and failed to address all concerns, but were viable, caused only a manageable amount of serious backlash and tied in well with Europe’s cultural diversity, also providing scope for learning and adaption.
    Keywords: European Union, Religion, values, Culture
    JEL: Z12 F15
    Date: 2018–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bge:wpaper:1025&r=ltv
  3. By: Gaeta, Giuseppe Lucio (University of Naples L’Orientale); Lubrano Lavadera, Giuseppe (University of Salerno); Pastore, Francesco (Università della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli)
    Abstract: The wage effect of job-education vertical mismatch (i.e. overeducation) has only recently been investigated in the case of Ph.D. holders. The existing contributions rely on OLS estimates that allow measuring the average effect of being mismatched at the mean of the conditional wages distribution. This paper, instead, observes the heterogeneity of the overeducation penalty along the wage distribution and according to Ph.D. holders' study field and sector of employment (academic/non-academic). We implement a Recentered Influence Function (RIF) to estimate an hourly wage equation and compare PhD holders who are over-educated with those who are not. The results reveal that overeducation hits the wages of those Ph.D. holders who are employed in the academic sector and in non-R&D jobs outside of the academic sector. Instead, no penalty exists among those who carry out R&D outside the Academia. The size of the penalty is higher among those who are in the mid-top of the wage distribution and hold a Social Science and Humanities specialization.
    Keywords: job-education mismatch, overeducation, wages, Ph.D. holders, unconditional quantile regression, Italy
    JEL: C26 I23 J13 J24 J28
    Date: 2018–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp11325&r=ltv
  4. By: Clarke, Andrew (University of Melbourne); Ferrer, Ana (University of Waterloo); Skuterud, Mikal (University of Waterloo)
    Abstract: We examine data from Australia, Canada, and the U.S. to inform the potential for immigrant screening policies to influence the labour market performance of skilled immigrants. Our estimates point to improvements in employment rates and weekly earnings of male university-educated immigrants in all three countries concomitant with skilled immigration policy reforms. Nonetheless, the gains are modest in comparison to a substantial and persistent performance advantage of U.S. skilled immigrants. Given that there is increasingly little to distinguish the skilled immigration policies of these countries, we interpret the U.S. advantage as primarily reflecting the relative positive selectivity of U.S. immigrants.
    Keywords: skilled migration, immigrant selection policies, immigrant labour market performance
    JEL: J24 J15 J08
    Date: 2018–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp11344&r=ltv
  5. By: Angelo Antoci; Fabio Sabatini
    Abstract: There is growing evidence that face-to-face interaction is declining in many countries, exacerbating the phenomenon of social isolation. On the other hand, social interaction through online networking sites is steeply rising. To analyze these societal dynamics, we have built an evolutionary game model in which agents can choose between three strategies of social participation: 1) interaction via both online social networks and face-to-face encounters; 2) interaction by exclusive means of face-to-face encounters; 3) opting out from both forms of participation in pursuit of social isolation. We illustrate the dynamics of interaction among these three types of agent that the model predicts, in light of the empirical evidence provided by previous literature. We then assess their welfare implications. We show that when online interaction is less gratifying than offline encounters, the dynamics of agents’ rational choices of interaction will lead to the extinction of the sub-population of online networks users, thereby making Facebook and similar platforms disappear in the long run. Furthermore, we show that the higher the propensity for discrimination of those who interact via online social networks and via face-to-face encounters (i.e., their preference for the interaction with agents of their same type), the greater the probability will be that they all will end up choosing social isolation in the long run, making society fall into a “social poverty trap”.
    Keywords: Social networks; segregation; dynamics of social interaction; social media, social networking sites.
    JEL: C73 D85 O33 Z13
    Date: 2018–03–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:eei:rpaper:eeri_rp_2018_01&r=ltv
  6. By: Alan Manning; Barbara Petrongolo
    Abstract: If we want to create jobs in disadvantaged local areas, the idea of 'local' needs to be revisited. Alan Manning and Barbara Petrongolo explain the problem of thinking of geographical space as non-overlapping single labour markets. Their study, which draws on evidence from job openings in London ahead of the 2012 Olympics, provides a useful toolkit to understand the likely impact of place-based policies.
    Keywords: Job search, local labour markets, location-based policies, ripple effects
    JEL: J61 J63 J64 R12
    Date: 2018–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cep:cepcnp:523&r=ltv

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