nep-ltv New Economics Papers
on Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty
Issue of 2016‒09‒25
five papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. The Growth-Employment-Poverty Nexus in Latin America in the 2000s: Cross-Country Analysis By Guillermo Cruces; Gary S. Fields; David Jaume; Mariana Viollaz
  2. Coping with Change: International Differences in the Returns to Skills By Eric A. Hanushek; Guido Schwerdt; Simon Wiederhold; Ludger Woessmann
  3. Knowledge Capital and Aggregate Income Differences: Development Accounting for U.S. States By Hanushek, Eric A.; Ruhose, Jens; Woessmann, Ludger
  4. The Labor Market Consequences of Refugee Supply Shocks By George J. Borjas; Joan Monras
  5. Do Women Ask? By Artz, Benjamin; Goodall, Amanda H.; Oswald, Andrew J.

  1. By: Guillermo Cruces (CEDLAS - UNLP , CONICET y IZA); Gary S. Fields (Cornell University y IZA); David Jaume (Cornell University); Mariana Viollaz (CEDLAS - UNLP)
    Abstract: In the great majority of Latin American countries in the 2000s, economic growth took place and brought about improvements in almost all labour market indicators and consequent reductions in poverty rates. Across countries, economic growth was not all that mattered; external factors were particularly important for changes in labour market conditions, while reductions in poverty were strongly related to improvements in earnings and employment indicators. Although the 2008 crisis affected some countries differently from others, nearly all labour market indicators were at least as high or higher by 2012 than immediately before the crisis in all countries but one.
    JEL: J21 J30 O10 O54
    Date: 2016–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:dls:wpaper:0200&r=ltv
  2. By: Eric A. Hanushek; Guido Schwerdt; Simon Wiederhold; Ludger Woessmann
    Abstract: Expanded international data from the PIAAC survey of adult skills allow us to analyze potential sources of the cross-country variation of comparably estimated labor-market returns to skills in a more diverse set of 32 countries. Returns to skills are systematically larger in countries that have grown faster in the recent past, consistent with models where skills are particularly important for adaptation to dynamic economic change.
    JEL: I20 J31 O15
    Date: 2016–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:22657&r=ltv
  3. By: Hanushek, Eric A. (Stanford University); Ruhose, Jens (Leibniz University); Woessmann, Ludger (University of Munich)
    Abstract: Although many U.S. state policies presume that human capital is important for state economic development, there is little research linking better education to state incomes. We develop detailed measures of skills of workers in each state based on school attainment from census micro data and on cognitive skills from state- and country-of-origin achievement tests. These new measures of knowledge capital permit development accounting analyses calibrated with standard production parameters. We find that differences in knowledge capital account for 20-35 percent of the current variation in per-capita GDP among states, with roughly even contributions by school attainment and cognitive skills. Similar results emerge from growth accounting analyses, emphasizing the importance of appropriately measuring worker skills. These estimates support emphasis on school improvement as a strategy for state economic development.
    Keywords: economic growth, human capital, cognitive skills, schooling, U.S. states JEL Classification: O47, I25, J24
    Date: 2016
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cge:wacage:299&r=ltv
  4. By: George J. Borjas; Joan Monras
    Abstract: The continuing inflow of hundreds of thousands of refugees into many European countries has ignited much political controversy and raised questions that require a fuller understanding of the determinants and consequences of refugee supply shocks. This paper revisits four historical refugee shocks to document their labor market impact. Specifically, we examine: The influx of Marielitos into Miami in 1980; the influx of French repatriates and Algerian nationals into France at the end of the Algerian Independence War in 1962; the influx of Jewish émigrés into Israel after the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s; and the exodus of refugees from the former Yugoslavia during the long series of Balkan wars between 1991 and 2001. We use a common empirical approach, derived from factor demand theory, and publicly available data to measure the impact of these shocks. Despite the differences in the political forces that motivated the various flows, and in economic conditions across receiving countries, the evidence reveals a common thread that confirms key insights of the canonical model of a competitive labor market: Exogenous supply shocks adversely affect the labor market opportunities of competing natives in the receiving countries, and often have a favorable impact on complementary workers. In short, refugee flows can have large distributional consequences.
    JEL: J23 J6
    Date: 2016–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:22656&r=ltv
  5. By: Artz, Benjamin (University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh); Goodall, Amanda H. (Cass Business School); Oswald, Andrew J. (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: Women typically earn less than men. The reasons are not fully understood. Previous studies argue that this may be because (i) women 'don't ask' and (ii) the reason they fail to ask is out of concern for the quality of their relationships at work. This account is difficult to assess with standard labor-economics data sets. Hence we examine direct survey evidence. Using matched employer-employee data from 2013-14, the paper finds that the women-don't-ask account is incorrect. Once an hours-of-work variable is included in 'asking' equations, hypotheses (i) and (ii) can be rejected. Women do ask. However, women do not get.
    Keywords: matched employer-employee data, female discrimination, wages, gender
    JEL: J31 J71
    Date: 2016–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp10183&r=ltv

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