nep-ltv New Economics Papers
on Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty
Issue of 2016‒09‒18
seven papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. The Labor Market Consequences of Refugee Supply Shocks By Borjas, George J.; Monras, Joan
  2. Migration as a Test of the Happiness Set Point Hypothesis: Evidence from Immigration to Canada By John F. Helliwell; Aneta Bonikowska; Hugh Shiplett
  3. Electoral reciprocity in programmatic redistribution: Experimental Evidence By Sebastian Galiani; Nadya Hajj; Pablo Ibarraran; Nandita Krishnaswamy; Patrick J. McEwan
  4. Trust and signals in workplace organization: evidence from job autonomy differentials between immigrant groups By van Hoorn, Andr
  5. Women Working Longer: Facts and Some Explanations By Claudia Goldin; Lawrence F. Katz
  6. Informal Labor and the Efficiency Cost of Social Programs: Evidence from the Brazilian Unemployment Insurance Program By François Gerard; Gustavo Gonzaga
  7. Natural disasters and human mobility By Mbaye, Linguère M.; Zimmermann, Klaus F.

  1. By: Borjas, George J. (Harvard University); Monras, Joan (CEMFI, Madrid)
    Abstract: The continuing inflow of hundreds of thousands of refugees into many European countries has ignited much political controversy and raised questions that require a fuller understanding of the determinants and consequences of refugee supply shocks. This paper revisits four historical refugee shocks to document their labor market impact. Specifically, we examine: The influx of Marielitos into Miami in 1980; the influx of French repatriates and Algerian nationals into France at the end of the Algerian Independence War in 1962; the influx of Jewish émigrés into Israel after the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s; and the exodus of refugees from the former Yugoslavia during the long series of Balkan wars between 1991 and 2001. We use a common empirical approach, derived from factor demand theory, and publicly available data to measure the impact of these shocks. Despite the differences in the political forces that motivated the various flows, and in economic conditions across receiving countries, the evidence reveals a common thread that confirms key insights of the canonical model of a competitive labor market: Exogenous supply shocks adversely affect the labor market opportunities of competing natives in the receiving countries, and often have a favorable impact on complementary workers. In short, refugee flows can have large distributional consequences.
    Keywords: immigration, refugee supply shocks
    JEL: J15 J61 J2
    Date: 2016–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp10212&r=ltv
  2. By: John F. Helliwell; Aneta Bonikowska; Hugh Shiplett
    Abstract: Strong versions of the set point hypothesis argue that subjective well-being measures reflect each individual’s own personality and that deviations from that set point will tend to be short-lived, rendering them poor measures of the quality of life. International migration provides an excellent test of this hypothesis, since life circumstances and average subjective well-being differ greatly among countries. Life satisfaction scores for immigrants to Canada from up to 100 source countries are compared to those in the countries where they were born. With or without various adjustments for selection effects, the average levels and distributions of life satisfaction scores among immigrants mimic those of other Canadians rather than those in their source countries and regions. This supports other evidence that subjective life evaluations, especially when averaged across individuals, are primarily driven by life circumstances, and respond correspondingly when those circumstances change.
    JEL: F22 I31 J61
    Date: 2016–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:22601&r=ltv
  3. By: Sebastian Galiani; Nadya Hajj; Pablo Ibarraran; Nandita Krishnaswamy; Patrick J. McEwan
    Abstract: We analyzed two conditional cash transfers experiments that preceded Honduran presidential elections in 2001 and 2013. In the first, smaller transfers had no effects on voter turnout or incumbent vote share. In the second, larger transfers increased turnout and incumbent share in similar magnitudes, consistent with the mobilization of the incumbent party base rather than vote switching. Moreover, we found that turnout and incumbent share increased when cumulative payments were similar, but larger payments were made closer to the elections. As in prior lab experiments, individuals seem to overweight “peak” and “end” payments in their retrospective estimation of net benefits. We further argue that a model of intrinsically-reciprocal voters is most consistent with the findings.
    JEL: H3 I38
    Date: 2016–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:22588&r=ltv
  4. By: van Hoorn, Andr (Groningen University)
    Date: 2016
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:gro:rugsom:16006-gem&r=ltv
  5. By: Claudia Goldin; Lawrence F. Katz
    Abstract: American women are working more, through their sixties and even into their seventies. Their increased participation at older ages started in the late 1980s before the turnaround in older men’s labor force participation and the economic downturns of the 2000s. The higher labor force participation of older women consists disproportionately of those working at full-time jobs. Increased labor force participation of women in their older ages is part of the general increase in cohort labor force participation. Cohort effects, in turn, are mainly a function of educational advances and greater prior work experience. But labor force participation rates of the most recent cohorts in their forties are less than those for previous cohorts. It would appear that employment at older ages could stagnate or even decrease. But several other factors will be operating in an opposing direction leading us to conclude that women are likely to continue to work even longer.
    JEL: J21 J22 J26
    Date: 2016–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:22607&r=ltv
  6. By: François Gerard; Gustavo Gonzaga
    Abstract: It is widely believed that the presence of a large informal sector increases the efficiency cost of social programs – transfer and social insurance programs – in developing countries. We evaluate such claims for policies that have been heavily studied in countries with low informality – increases in unemployment insurance (UI) benefits. We introduce informal work opportunities into a canonical model of optimal UI that specifies the typical tradeoff between workers' need for insurance and the efficiency cost from distorting their incentives to return to a formal job. We then combine the model with evidence drawn from comprehensive administrative data to quantify the efficiency cost of increases in potential UI duration in Brazil. We find evidence of behavioral responses to UI incentives, including informality responses. However, because reemployment rates in the formal sector are low to begin with, most beneficiaries would draw the UI benefits absent behavioral responses, and only a fraction of the cost of (longer) UI benefits is due to perverse incentive effects. As a result, the efficiency cost is relatively low, and in fact lower than comparable estimates for the US. We reinforce this finding by showing that the efficiency cost is also lower in labor markets with higher informality within Brazil. This is because formal reemployment rates are even lower in those labor markets absent behavioral responses. In sum, the results go against the conventional wisdom, and indicate that efficiency concerns may even become more relevant as an economy formalizes.
    JEL: H0 J46 J65
    Date: 2016–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:22608&r=ltv
  7. By: Mbaye, Linguère M. (African Development Bank Group, and IZA); Zimmermann, Klaus F. (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, and Harvard University)
    Abstract: This paper reviews the effect of natural disasters on human mobility or migration. Although there is an increase of natural disasters and migration recently and more patterns to observe, the relationship remains complex. While some authors find that disasters increase migration, others show that they have only a marginal or no effect or are even negative. Human mobility appears to be an insurance mechanism against environmental shocks and there are different transmission channels which can explain the relationship between natural disasters and migration. Moreover, migrants' remittances help to decrease households' vulnerability to shocks but also dampen their adverse effects. The paper provides a discussion of policy implications and potential future research avenues.
    Keywords: natural disasters, forced migration, remittances, Insurance, droughts, earthquakes, floods
    JEL: J61 O15 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2016–08–19
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unm:unumer:2016040&r=ltv

This nep-ltv issue is ©2016 by Maximo Rossi. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at http://nep.repec.org. For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <director@nep.repec.org>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.