nep-ltv New Economics Papers
on Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty
Issue of 2016‒05‒21
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Happy People Have Children: Choice and Self-Selection into Parenthood By Sophie Cetre; Andrew E. Clark; Claudia Senik
  2. Attitudes towards Intimate Partner Violence against Women in Latin America By Marisa Bucheli; Máximo Rossi
  3. Who Gets Hired? The Importance of Finding an Open Slot By Edward P. Lazear; Kathryn L. Shaw; Christopher T. Stanton
  4. A Life-Cycle Model of Trans-Atlantic Employment Experiences By Kitao, Sagiri; Ljungqvist, Lars; Sargent, Thomas J

  1. By: Sophie Cetre; Andrew E. Clark; Claudia Senik
    Abstract: There is mixed evidence in the existing literature on whether children are associated with greater subjective well-being, with the correlation depending on which countries and populations are considered. We here provide a systematic analysis of this question based on three different datasets: two cross-national and one national panel. We show that the association between children and subjective well-being is positive only in developed countries, and for those who become parents after the age of 30 and who have higher income. We also provide evidence of a positive selection into parenthood, whereby happier individuals are more likely to have children.
    Keywords: Happiness; fertility; children; income; selection
    Date: 2016–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cpm:docweb:1604&r=ltv
  2. By: Marisa Bucheli (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República); Máximo Rossi (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República)
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze the factors that explain attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) in 23 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Analyses of IPVAW in LAC are relatively scarce although there is growing concern about this problem in the region. We aim to assess the effect of individual and country characteristics using data from common sources for all countries. This work contributes to the sparse literature dealing with methods that attempt to assess the effect of macro variables. We perform a two-step procedure. We first estimate a logit model at the individual level, we calculate a measure of relative approval of IPVAW at country level and we use this measure as a dependent variable to estimate the effect of macro variables. Our study finds that most LAC patterns at individual level are similar to the international ones: approval of IPVAW is higher among women, people in rural areas, people in a disadvantaged socio-economic situation and individuals with some particular cultural characteristics. Unlikely international evidence, attitudes do not differ between ages. Our findings at country level show that approval of IPVAW increases with poverty, fertility rate and equal gender outcomes. It decreases with internet access and, with a lesser degree of robustness, with the time elapsed since the enactment of women’s suffrage. The most novel contribution of our work is the study of the variables at country level.
    Keywords: intimate partner violence, attitudes, Latin America, gender roles, violence
    JEL: J12 J19 D03 D19
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ude:wpaper:0116&r=ltv
  3. By: Edward P. Lazear; Kathryn L. Shaw; Christopher T. Stanton
    Abstract: A model of hiring into posted job slots suggests hiring is based on comparative advantage: being hired depends not only on one’s own skill but also on the skills of other applicants. The model has numerous implications. First, bumping of applicants occurs when one job-seeker is slotted into a lower paying job by another applicant who is more skilled. Second, less able workers are more likely to be unemployed because they are bumped. Third, vacancies are higher for harder to fill skilled jobs. Fourth, some workers are over-qualified for their jobs whereas others are under-qualified. These implications are borne out using four different data sets.
    JEL: D83 J01 J2 J21 J23 J24 J6 J62 J64 M5 M51
    Date: 2016–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:22202&r=ltv
  4. By: Kitao, Sagiri; Ljungqvist, Lars; Sargent, Thomas J
    Abstract: To understand trans-Atlantic employment experiences since World War II, we build an overlapping generations model with two types of workers (high school and college graduates) whose different skill acquisition technologies affect their career decisions. Search frictions affect short-run employment outcomes. The model focuses on labor supply responses near beginnings and ends of lives and on whether unemployment and early retirements are financed by personal savings or public benefit programs. Higher minimum wages in Europe explain why youth unemployment has risen more there than in the U.S. Turbulence, in the form of higher risks of human capital depreciation after involuntary job destructions, causes long-term unemployment in Europe, mostly among older workers, but leaves U.S. unemployment unaffected. The losses of skill interact with workers' subsequent decisions to invest in human capital in ways that generate the age-dependent increases in autocovariances of income shocks observed by Moffitt and Gottschalk (1995).
    Keywords: benefits; employment protection; Europe; minimum wage; U.S.; Unemployment
    JEL: E24 J21 J64
    Date: 2016–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:11260&r=ltv

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