nep-ltv New Economics Papers
on Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty
Issue of 2016‒04‒30
seven papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Segregated Integration: Recent Trends in the Austrian Gender Division of Labor By Margareta Kreimer; Ricardo Mora
  2. Happy People Have Children: Choice and Self-Selection into Parenthood By Cetre, Sophie; Clark, Andrew E.; Senik, Claudia
  3. Mental Health and Productivity at Work: Does What You Do Matter? By Melisa Bubonya; Deborah Cobb-Clark; Mark Wooden
  4. Individual Well-Being and the Allocation of Time Before and After the Boston Marathon Terrorist Bombing By Clark, Andrew E.; Stancanelli, Elena G. F.
  5. Globalisation and inequality: A dynamic general equilib- rium model of unequal exchange By Roberto Veneziani; Naoki Yoshihara
  6. Unions and the Economic Basis of Attitudes By White, Michael; Bryson, Alex
  7. School grants and education quality : experimental evidence from Senegal By Amaro Da Costa Luz Carneiro,Pedro Manuel; Koussihouede,Oswald; Lahire,Nathalie; Meghir,Costas; Mommaerts,Corina

  1. By: Margareta Kreimer (University of Graz); Ricardo Mora (Universidad Carlos III)
    Abstract: Using micro data from the Austrian Labor Force Survey from 1996 to 2010, this paper explores the effects on gender segregation of two opposing trends in gender differentials: decreasing gender differentials in participation rates and increasing gender differentials in the incidence of part-time jobs. To do so, we propose an index for the gender division of labor and look at the contributions of gender differences in participation, the incidence of part-time jobs, and in occupational choices to its evolution. Our main results show that the gender division of labor is very stable over the 15-year period. This is because the positive effects from the rising female labor force participation rates are counterbalanced by the negative effects from increasing gender differences in the incidence of part-time jobs. We also find that occupational segregation is the most important source of the gender division of labor and that its contribution remains stable throughout the entire period. These results are robust to alternative definitions of economic activity and labor market involvement and are also found after controlling for educational levels and fields.
    Keywords: Gender Division of Labor; Sources of Gender Segregation; Segregation Indexes, Mutual Information
    JEL: J16 J24 J62
    Date: 2016–04
  2. By: Cetre, Sophie (Paris School of Economics); Clark, Andrew E. (Paris School of Economics); Senik, Claudia (Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: There is mixed evidence in the existing literature on whether children are associated with greater subjective well-being, with the correlation depending on which countries and populations are considered. We here provide a systematic analysis of this question based on three different datasets: two cross-national and one national panel. We show that the association between children and subjective well-being is positive only in developed countries, and for those who become parents after the age of 30 and who have higher income. We also provide evidence of a positive selection into parenthood, whereby happier individuals are more likely to have children.
    Keywords: happiness, fertility, children, income, selection
    JEL: D1 J13
    Date: 2016–04
  3. By: Melisa Bubonya (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Deborah Cobb-Clark (School of Economics, The University of Sydney; Institute for the Study of Labour (IZA); and ARC Centre of Excellence for Children and Families Over the Life Course); Mark Wooden (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne; and Institute for the Study of Labour (IZA))
    Abstract: Much of the economic cost of mental illness stems from workers’ reduced productivity. We analyze the links between mental health and two alternative workplace productivity measures – absenteeism and presenteeism (i.e., lower productivity while attending work) – explicitly allowing these relationships to be moderated by the nature of the job itself. We find that absence rates are approximately five percent higher among workers who report being in poor mental health. Moreover, job conditions are related to both presenteeism and absenteeism even after accounting for workers’ self-reported mental health status. Job conditions are relatively more important in understanding diminished productivity at work if workers are in good rather than poor mental health. The effects of job complexity and stress on absenteeism do not depend on workers’ mental health, while job security and control moderate the effect of mental illness on absence days. Classification-I12, J22, J24
    Keywords: Mental health, presenteeism, absenteeism, work productivity
    Date: 2016–04
  4. By: Clark, Andrew E. (Paris School of Economics); Stancanelli, Elena G. F. (CNRS, Sorbonne Economics Research Center (CES))
    Abstract: There is a small literature on the economic costs of terrorism. We consider the effects of the Boston marathon bombing on Americans' well-being and time allocation. We exploit data from the American Time Use Survey and Well-Being Module in the days around the terrorist attack to implement a regression-discontinuity design. The bombing led to a significant and large drop of about 1.5 points in well-being, on a scale of one to six, for residents of the States close to Boston. The happiness of American women also dropped significantly, by almost a point, regardless of the State of residence. Labor supply and other time use were not significantly affected. We find no well-being effect of the Sandy Hook shootings, suggesting that terrorism is different in nature from other violent deaths.
    Keywords: well-being, time use, Terrorism
    JEL: I31 J21 J22 F52
    Date: 2016–04
  5. By: Roberto Veneziani (Queen Mary University of London); Naoki Yoshihara (Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst)
    Abstract: A dynamic general equilibrium model that generalises Roemer's [23] economy with a global capital market is analysed. An axiomatic analysis of the concept of unequal exchange (UE) between countries is developed at general dynamic equilibria. The class of UE definitions that satisfy three fundamental properties - including a correspondence between wealth, class and UE exploitation status - is completely characterised. It is shown that this class is nonempty and a definition of UE exploitation between countries is proposed, which is theoretically robust and firmly anchored to empirically observable data. The full class and UE exploitation structure of the international economy is derived in equilibrium.
    Keywords: Exploitation, classes, unequal exchange, international economy
    JEL: D63 F02 B51
    Date: 2016–04
  6. By: White, Michael (Policy Studies Institute); Bryson, Alex (University College London)
    Abstract: Unions make differences to employee satisfaction that correspond to their effects on individual economic advantage. Panel data reveal how changes in economic circumstance and changes in job satisfaction are linked to changes in union coverage. When individuals move into a union covered job they receive a wage mark-up and express enhanced pay satisfaction. Conversely, those moving from a union covered job on average lose any mark-up and have significantly reduced satisfaction. Similar findings emerge for working hours. On average individuals prefer shorter hours, something they tend to (not to) achieve on moving into (out of) a unionized job, resulting in higher (lower) satisfaction. Switching into union coverage lowers satisfaction with job security, even though coverage has no effect on the risk of unemployment. This is because covered employees suffer greater costs of re-employment for a given level of unemployment risk, partly due to loss of the union mark-up.
    Keywords: trade unions, job satisfaction, pay, job security, hours
    JEL: J28 J51
    Date: 2016–04
  7. By: Amaro Da Costa Luz Carneiro,Pedro Manuel; Koussihouede,Oswald; Lahire,Nathalie; Meghir,Costas; Mommaerts,Corina
    Abstract: The effect of increasing school resources on educational outcomes is a central issue in the debate on improving school quality. This paper uses a randomized experiment to analyze the impact of a school grants program in Senegal, which allowed schools to apply for funding for improvements of their own choice. The analysis finds positive effects on test scores at lower grades that persist at least two years. These effects are concentrated among schools that focused funds on human resource improvements rather than school materials, suggesting that teachers and principals may be a central determinant of school quality.
    Keywords: Education For All,Effective Schools and Teachers,Secondary Education,Tertiary Education,Primary Education
    Date: 2016–04–06

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